Rom 1:1 Paul, a bondservant [doulos] of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God
Paul realized his position
Act 20:28 Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.
Paul will talk about slavery and the blood of Christ more later on in this letter to the Romans
This is why Paul was called and set aside. His purpose was to be an apostle, one sent forth [meaning of the term apostle] and preach THE gospel of the Kingdom of God from God and Christ.
Gospel = Good News
Gal 1:6 I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel,
Gal 1:7 which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ.
Gal 1:8 But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.
Gal 1:9 As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed.
When Christ spoke he spoke He spoke His Father’s words
John 10:30 I and My Father are one.” [In complete agreement is what this means]
So when we refer to the Gospel there is only ONE. Don’t let others tell you any differently as Galatians admonishes us.
Rom 1:2 which He promised before through His prophets in the Holy Scriptures,
Which scriptures? The Old Testament! Paul is saying that the promise of the Gospel was written about in the Old Testament. Why would you want to throw that away? Notice the power of the Old Testament :
2 Ti 3:15 and that from childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures [Old Testament], which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
2 Ti 3:16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,
2 Ti 3:17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.
And as we go through this epistle we will see that Paul continually pulls from the Old Testament
Rom 1:3 concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,
He is confirming prophecy, as do the genealogies of Mary and Joseph and also that that Jesus Christ was physical that he came according to the flesh and then he states:
Rom 1:4 and declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.
Jesus Christ was fully man during His time on Earth, but then became fully God again imbued with all power and glory, by the resurrection from the dead. It wasn’t until after that He was made into His former state.
Some say that JC was fully man and fully God during his tenure on earth, but these two verses, among others, contradict it.
Rom 1:5 Through Him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations for His name,
More about grace later. But note that we now that we are called there is an expectation of obedience, obedience to the faith, obeying the beliefs set forth in the bible.
Rom 1:6 among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; [from the nations in :5]
Rom 1:7 To all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Once called we are saints. The word here is hagios which is most often translated “holy” [means sacred, consecrated, blameless]
We are holy because of the Holy Spirit in us, the power of God in us.
Holy Spirit is left out of the greeting, as it is many other places where Paul is greeting the recipients of the letter. What an offense this would be if the Holy Spirit was a person
Rom 1:8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. [the known Roman empire]
Around 49 AD Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome. Took faith to come back
Rom 1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of His Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers,
Prayed for them consistently
Rom 1:10 making request if, by some means, now at last I may find a way in the will of God to come to you.
Rom 1:11 For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, so that you may be established—
Paul considered there to be a need there
Rom 1:12 that is, that I may be encouraged together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.
Growth is always encouraging to a minister. Paul talked of Timothy being his son in the faith. Like a father, Paul reared him, nurtured him, and was pleased with his growth as any parent would be. A minister watches out for your souls, as those who must give account. Heb 13:17. And when growth happens it is encouraging to see them take on more responsibility for themselves and become better and more capable Christians.
Rom 1:13 Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that I often planned to come to you (but was hindered until now), that I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the other Gentiles.
Context here is that He is speaking to Gentiles
Wanted to come but was hindered possibly by Satan as he mentions in 1 Th 2:18, or by other circumstances or greater needs, such as those in Corinth where he is thought to have written this letter from
Rom 1:14 I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise.
Because of the calling he had that we just went through, he felt an obligation to preach the Gospel to the Greek and Barbarians
Greek were the non-jews, so by extension the rest of the world
And the knowledge was not just for the “so-called” elite but everyone
Barbarians were the ones considered uncultured by the Greek
Rom 1:15 So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also.
He was ready and willing, just not able like he mentioned in :13
Rom 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek.
Gospel of God in :1 same as the gospel that Christ and the gospel that JC preached was the Kingdom of God
Define: Salvation: means saving; rescue; from death penalty;
Power of God that does this; It is a gift He gives to us
We have to have God do this, we cant do it of our selves
Message went to the Jews first; God does everything decently and in order; just like the resurrection
Acts 10 Cornelius; first convert not much later, but later; Peter was the first contact; clean and unclean vision
Rom 1:17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “THE JUST SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.”
JUST and Righteous derived from the same root word; More about this later in Chapter 2
This may be one of the main themes, God’s righteousness of the book of Romans. We are to seek first the Kingdom of God and its righteousness and Paul is going explain technically how this happens
The gospel in its entirety describes the righteousness of/from God;
Righteousness means a state of being right with God; state or condition in alignment with the perfection of God; same word as just/justification
Only God is inherently righteous
From faith to faith; from the faith we once had or the lack of it to a greater, better, more genuine faith
Or from beginning to a more mature faith, we grow in faith; from old faith (Judaism) to new one; from physical to spiritual; any one would fit the meaning
LIVE: we must do more than believe. We must live it.
Romans is telling us how to really and truly live by faith, living by faith of Christ
Jews thought they could do it on their own, and perhaps we did too
Beginning here he talks about the need for God’s righteousness (Romans 1:18-3:20) and putting into perspective our unrighteousness
So we begin with the unrighteousness of Gentiles through to the end of this chapter
Rom 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,
They have it but they hold down the truth
Wrath of God is now seen. His wrath Reveals His the Mind of god .
In one way: laws are preset in motion. We can also see His direct intervention in other matters as well.
Rom 1:19 because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them.
God has revealed himself to mankind.
Adam knew God [since the creation of the world]; Babel knew God; Post flood knew; and their ancestors; We know today from looking at the world and universe and the complexity of man;
Rom 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse,
Heb 11:3 By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible.
The invisible is more real and is the basis of the physical
Psa 19:1 To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David. The heavens declare the glory of God; And the firmament shows His handiwork.
Psa 19:2 Day unto day utters speech, And night unto night reveals knowledge.
Psa 19:3 There is no speech nor language Where their voice is not heard.
Psa 19:4 Their line has gone out through all the earth, And their words to the end of the world. In them He has set a tabernacle for the sun,
Psa 19:5 Which is like a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, And rejoices like a strong man to run its race.
Psa 19:6 Its rising is from one end of heaven, And its circuit to the other end; And there is nothing hidden from its heat.
Rom 1:21 because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened.
The ancients knew god
Rom 1:22 Professing to be wise, they became fools,
Their own philosophies and ways
Ps 14:1 only fool says there is no God
Rom 1:23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.
Carved idols of animals…really? What were they thinking
Rom 1:24 Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves,
Gave them up = handing them over in the judicial system for jail; turned them over to their own desires [which is a prison] they are a world held captive by Satan as he leads them to chase after the lusts of their heart
1 J 2:15-16 lust of flesh, lust of eyes, pride of life[we can solve our own probs] Mark at the feast
1 Jn 2:15 Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.
1 Jn 2:16 For all that is in the world—the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life—is not of the Father but is of the world.
1 Jn 2:17 And the world is passing away, and the lust of it; but he who does the will of God abides forever.
Lust is an inordinate or wrong desire – gets into the lusts dishonoring its body later
Rom 1:25 who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
They knew god and instead “smart man” worships “dumb animal” or wood or stone.
Rom 1:26 For this reason God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what is against nature.
Gave them up expression
Vile = dishonor see vs 25; Vile passions = passions of dishonor;
Rom 1:27 Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due.
Gen 19 whole society destroyed; Lev 18:22; 1 Cor 6:9-11
This is not a better way of life and does not bring happiness
People are not born this way. All have the chance of being in the Kingdom of God. So it is overcomeable
You become this way through a number of factors that occur at a very early, so most don’t remember being any other way, so they think they were always this way.
Penalty of their error which was due : reap what you sow
This is the indirect wrath of God from :18
Rom 1:28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting;
They had knowledge of God, just rejected it.
Debased = unfit; not standing the test;
Shows what happens to a society that rejects God and becomes debased
Rom 1:29 being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil-mindedness; they are whisperers,
Rom 1:30 backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
Rom 1:31 undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful;
Rom 1:32 who, knowing the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death, not only do the same but also approve of those who practice them.
These are sins and the wages of sin is death
Practice = lives that way of life
This is our society today and no one thinks anything of it
Again we are talking about the Gentiles…the whole rest of the world and even as it is now. Next time we begin in Chapter 2 with the unrighteousness of the Jews.