Book of Romans

Romans 1

Romans 1:1  Paul, a bondservant [doulos] of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God

Paul realized his position

Act 20:28  Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.

Paul will talk about slavery and the blood of Christ more later on in this letter to the Romans

This is why Paul was called and set aside.  His purpose was to be an apostle, one sent forth [meaning of the term apostle] and preach THE gospel of the Kingdom of God from God and Christ.

Gospel = Good News

Galatians 1:6  I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel,

Galatians 1:7  which is not another; but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ.

Galatians 1:8  But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.

Galatians 1:9  As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed.

When Christ spoke he spoke He spoke His Father’s words

John 10:30  I and My Father are one.” [In complete agreement is what this means]

So when we refer to the Gospel there is only ONE.  Don’t let others tell you any differently as Galatians admonishes us.

Romans 1:2  which He promised before through His prophets in the Holy Scriptures,

Which scriptures?  The  Old Testament!  Paul is saying that the promise of the Gospel was written about in the Old Testament.  Why would you want to throw that away?  Notice the power of the Old Testament :

2 Timothy 3:15  and that from childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures [Old Testament], which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.

2 Timothy 3:16  All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,

2 Timothy 3:17  that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

And as we go through this epistle we will see that Paul continually pulls from the Old Testament

Romans 1:3  concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,

He is confirming prophecy, as do the genealogies of Mary and Joseph and also that that Jesus Christ was physical that he came according to the flesh and then he states:

Romans 1:4  and declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.

Jesus Christ was fully man during His time on Earth, but then became fully God again imbued with all power and glory,  by the resurrection from the dead.  It wasn’t until after that He was made into His former state.

Some say that JC was fully man and fully God during his tenure on earth, but these two verses, among others, contradict it.

Romans 1:5  Through Him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations for His name,

More about grace later. But note that we now that we are called there is an expectation of obedience, obedience to the faith, obeying the beliefs set forth in the bible.

Romans 1:6  among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; [from the nations in :5]

Romans 1:7  To all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Once called we are saints. The word here is hagios which is most often translated “holy” [means sacred, consecrated, blameless]

We are holy because of the Holy Spirit in us, the power of God in us.

Holy Spirit is left out of the greeting, as it is many other places where Paul is greeting the recipients of the letter.  What an offense this would be if the Holy Spirit was a person

Romans 1:8  First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. [the known Roman empire]

Around 49 AD Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome.  Took faith to come back

Romans 1:9  For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of His Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers,

Prayed for them consistently

Romans 1:10  making request if, by some means, now at last I may find a way in the will of God to come to you.

Romans 1:11  For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, so that you may be established—

Paul considered there to be a need there

Romans 1:12  that is, that I may be encouraged together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.

Growth is always encouraging to a minister. Paul talked of Timothy being his son in the faith. Like a father, Paul reared him, nurtured him, and was pleased with his growth as any parent would be.  A minister watches out for your souls, as those who must give account. Heb 13:17.  And when growth happens it is encouraging to see them take on more responsibility for themselves and become better and more capable Christians.

Romans 1:13  Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that I often planned to come to you (but was hindered until now), that I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the other Gentiles.

Context here is that He is speaking to Gentiles

Wanted to come but was hindered possibly by Satan as he mentions in 1 Th 2:18, or by other circumstances or greater needs, such as those in Corinth where he is thought to have written this letter from

Romans 1:14  I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise.

Because of the calling he had that we just went through, he felt an obligation to preach the Gospel to the Greek and Barbarians

Greek were the non-jews, so by extension the rest of the world

And the knowledge was not just for the “so-called” elite but everyone

Barbarians were the ones considered uncultured by the Greek

Romans 1:15  So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also.

He was ready and willing, just not able like he mentioned in :13

Romans 1:16  For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek.

Gospel of God in :1 same as the gospel that Christ and the gospel that JC preached was the Kingdom of God

Define: Salvation: means saving; rescue; from death penalty;

Power of God that does this; It is a gift He gives to us

We have to have God do this, we cant do it of our selves

Message went to the Jews first; God does everything decently and in order; just like the resurrection

Acts 10 Cornelius; first convert not much later, but later; Peter was the first contact; clean and unclean vision

Romans 1:17  For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “THE JUST SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.”

JUST and Righteous derived from the same root word; More about this later in Chapter 2

This may be one of the main themes, God’s righteousness of the book of Romans.  We are to seek first the Kingdom of God and its righteousness and Paul is going explain technically how this happens

The gospel in its entirety describes the righteousness of/from God;

Righteousness  means a state of being right with God; state or condition in alignment with the perfection of God; same word as just/justification

Only God is inherently righteous

From faith to faith; from the faith we once had or the lack of it to a greater, better, more genuine faith

Or from beginning to a more mature faith, we grow in faith; from old faith (Judaism) to new one; from physical to spiritual; any one would fit the meaning

LIVE:  we must do more than believe.  We must live it.

Romans is telling us how to really and truly live by faith, living by faith of Christ

Jews thought they could do it on their own, and perhaps we did too

Beginning here he talks about the need for God’s righteousness (Romans 1:18-3:20) and putting into perspective our unrighteousness

So we begin with the unrighteousness of Gentiles through to the end of this chapter

Romans 1:18  For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,

They have it but they hold down the truth

Wrath of God is now seen. His wrath Reveals His the Mind of god .

In one way: laws are preset in motion.  We can also see His direct intervention in other matters as well.

Romans 1:19  because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them.

God has revealed himself to mankind.

Adam knew God [since the creation of the world]; Babel knew God; Post flood knew; and their ancestors; We know today from looking at the world and universe and the complexity of man;

Romans 1:20  For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse,

Hebrews 11:3  By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible.

The invisible is more real and is the basis of the physical

Psalm 19:1  To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David. The heavens declare the glory of  God; And the firmament shows His handiwork.

Psalm 19:2  Day unto day utters speech, And night unto night reveals knowledge.

Psalm 19:3  There is no speech nor language Where their voice is not heard.

Psalm 19:4  Their line has gone out through all the earth, And their words to the end of the world. In them He has set a tabernacle for the sun,

Psalm 19:5  Which is like a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, And rejoices like a strong man to run its race.

Psalm 19:6  Its rising is from one end of heaven, And its circuit to the other end; And there is nothing hidden from its heat.

Romans 1:21  because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened.

The ancients knew god


Romans 1:22  Professing to be wise, they became fools,

Their own philosophies and ways

Psalm 14:1 only fool says there is no God

Romans 1:23  and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.

Carved idols of animals…really? What were they thinking

Romans 1:24  Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves,

Gave them up = handing them over in the judicial system for jail; turned them over to their own desires [which is a prison] they are a world held captive by Satan as he leads them to chase after the lusts of their heart

1 John 2:15-16 lust of flesh, lust of eyes, pride of life[we can solve our own probs] Mark at the feast

1 John 2:15  Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.

1 John 2:16  For all that is in the world—the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life—is not of the Father but is of the world.

1 John 2:17  And the world is passing away, and the lust of it; but he who does the will of God abides forever.

Lust is an inordinate or wrong desire  – gets into the lusts dishonoring its body later

Romans 1:25  who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

They knew god and instead “smart man” worships “dumb animal” or wood or stone.

Romans 1:26  For this reason God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what is against nature.

Gave them up expression

Vile = dishonor see vs 25; Vile passions =  passions of dishonor;

Romans 1:27  Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due.

Gen 19 whole society destroyed; Lev 18:22; 1 Cor 6:9-11

This is not a better way of life and does not  happiness

People are not born this way. All have the chance of being in the Kingdom of God.  So it is overcomeable

You become this way through a number of factors that occur at a very early, so most don’t remember being any other way, so they think they were always this way.

Penalty of their error which was due :  reap what you sow

This is the indirect wrath of God from :18

Romans 1:28  And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting;

They had knowledge of God, just rejected it.

Debased = unfit; not standing the test;

Shows what happens to a society that  rejects God and becomes debased

Romans 1:29  being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil-mindedness; they are whisperers,

Romans 1:30  backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

Romans 1:31  undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful;

Romans 1:32  who, knowing the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death, not only do the same but also approve of those who practice them.

These are sins and the wages of sin is death

Practice = lives that way of life

This is our society today and no one thinks anything of it

Again we are talking about the Gentiles…the whole rest of the world and even as it is now.  Next time we begin in Chapter 2 with the unrighteousness of the Jews.

Romans 2

After writing about the unrighteousness of the Gentiles in chapter 1 of Romans — it is now the Jew’s turn

Paul having been steeped in Judaism, knew whereof he spoke.

Act 22:3  “I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, taught according to the strictness of our fathers’ law, and was zealous toward God as you all are today.

He took this strictness to the nth degree, killing Christians because of his long held belief in Judaism — Until he was struck blind and subsequently shown a better way by Christ.

So if there was one person to speak to the Jews and tell them what was righteous and what was not it was Paul.

Righteousness means a state of being right with God; it is conforming and living according to the perfect character of god; it is also simply “right doing” or doing what is right according to the word of God.

Some of these words we will continue to define further, or rather let the Bible define further as we go along

Now back to the unrighteousness of the Jews….

They knew what God required; felt superior to gentiles; because they had the law that God had expressly given to them…the problem was and as we will see is that they didn’t keep the law as they should have.

They knew God’s way but didn’t live it!

This is a chapter that the “Church of God” would do well to take to heart.  We have been given a precious knowledge in the end time, but we are not fully living by every word of it.  It is primarily because of this attitude of thinking they are spiritually rich, wealthy, needing of nothing that we endanger ourselves.

The Jews knew what God required of man, they had this special knowledge but did not do what was right.

Romans 2:1  Therefore you are inexcusable, O man [Jew], whoever you are who judge, for in whatever you judge another you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things.

They were judging the gentiles but were doing the same thing; they couldn’t see it.

When you judge [krino] another you condemn [katakrino] yourself

As you can imagine the Jews of the day and how they were acting.  Jesus criticized the Jews of his day for being hypocrites and now Paul is doing the same to the Jews who were now Christians — So this is some pretty hard hitting stuff.

It would be good for us to take it personally as well!

Romans 2:2  But we know that the judgment of God is according to truth against those who practice such things.

You may want to put this on in your keeping the law scriptures — even though I can assure that we are coming to some more black and white ones, but I want you know and know that you know that the law is not done away with. Paul covers this in the book of Romans thoroughly.

Judgment implies that they will be measured against the Word of God, which is truth.  There is a requirement to be doing what God says.


Romans 2:3  And do you think this, O man, you who judge those practicing such things, and doing the same, that you will escape the judgment of God [krima: the final condemnation]?

The obvious answer is “no.”

Romans 2:4  Or do you despise the riches of His goodness, forbearance, and longsuffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance?

God gives repentance, it is a gift, just as salvation is and just as righteousness is and many of the other things that we will be going over.

Acts 11:18  When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted [given in other words] repentance unto life.

He gives us the ability to repent and he does it by His goodness.  He gives it both to Jews and Gentiles.

Romans 2:5  But in accordance with your hardness and your impenitent heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God,

In verses :5-11 we will see that God is the final judge; the ultimate decision is in His hands and it will be righteous [unlike the Jews and the way that they were acting].


We will be rewarded according to our works and the things that we have been doing. This shows that the law is still in effect.  There will be a good reward for good works and bad for bad deeds or no works. Let’s be clear once again: salvation is given as a gift that cannot be earned and is not deserved.

Revelation 22:11 He who is unjust, let him be unjust still; he who is filthy, let him be filthy still; he who is righteous, let him be righteous still; he who is holy, let him be holy still.”
Revelation 22:12 “And behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to give to every one according to his work.

MARK as law not done away with and this is really as close to the end of the Bible as you can get and the Bible is staying saying that works are necessary.  Christ is saying that we will be rewarded for our works.

We will see this later in Romans 6:23 … the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Romans 2:7  eternal life to those who by patient continuance in doing good seek for glory, honor, and immortality;

“doing good” is Ergon er’-gon in the Greek.  This is the same word as “DEEDS” in the previous verse and it is most often translated as “works” or “work.”

When we are doing what is right, we are to be living righteously, doing good works

“Immortality” is better translated as “incorruptible” (same word as in 1 Corinthinan 15, the resurrection chapter)

Psalm 14:1  To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David. The fool has said in his heart,”There is no God.” They are corrupt, They have done abominable works, There is none who does good.

Psalm 14:2  The LORD looks down from heaven upon the children of men, To see if there are any who understand, who seek God.

Psalm 14:3  They have all turned aside, They have together become corrupt; There is none who does good, No, not one.

There is a correlation between “seeking God” and “incorruptibility.”

Romans 2:8  but to those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness—indignation and wrath,

Self–seeking: selfish, factious, and contentious

What is the Truth that needs to OBEYED – God’s word [John 17:17]

Romans 2:9  tribulation and anguish, on every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek;

BOTH groups will suffer.

The order that the gospel went to them Jew first then the Greek

Romans 2:10  but glory, honor, and peace to everyone who works what is good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.

“works” [Greek word begins with erg similar to before]

We see their is an order that God is working in — as He does (1 Corinthians 14:40).

Romans 2:11  For there is no partiality with God.

God is accessible to all people

Acts 10:34  Then Peter opened his mouth and said: “In truth I perceive that God shows no partiality.

Acts 10:35  But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him.

KJV: God is no respecter of persons

From G4381 pros-o-pol-ape-see’-ah (pros-o-pol-ape’-tace)
From G4383 and G2983; an accepter of a face (individual), that is, (specifically) one exhibiting partiality: – respecter of persons.

More or less is judging somebody on their looks or outward appearance.

How does God look upon man?

1 Samuel 16:7  But the LORD said to Samuel, “Do not look at his appearance or at his physical stature, because I have refused him. For the LORD does not see as man sees; for man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD looks at the heart.”

WHY is God the Righteous Judge, because God looks on the inward heart.

Romans 2:12  For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the law will be judged by the law

Gentiles did not have the law (or knowledge of it) like the Jews did, nonetheless they will reap the penalty of the law as well anyway.

Analogy: running the stop sign (ignorance of law is not an excuse).

If you do know and sin you will be judged by the law more harshly.

Luke 12:48  But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

Those sinning in the law will incur the same death penalty, they will be judged by the law and will perish, because of the penalty of sin.

Romans 3:23  for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

Romans 6:23  For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

But they that sin knowing the law risk more — They also risk searing the conscience.

1 Timothy 4:2  speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their own conscience seared with a hot iron,

JUSTIFICATION – this is a major theme of the book and is mostly concentrated between here and chapter 5.

Justification means “made righteous”;  made right; declared righteous.

Justification means to be made righteous in God’s sight.

Righteousness is being like God and having the same character as our holy, righteous God.

Justification has two different aspects to it:

  1. Initial justification; the legal acquittal of guilt; free from guilt doesn’t make you perfectly righteous.
  2. How we as a christian live a Godly life; how we are to live a just life and develop holy righteous character

It is closely tied with righteousness as we saw in the definitions and as seen in the Greek as well:

Here are Strong’s G1342-1347 and how the word is translated:

dikaios: righteous, just, right
dikaiosunē: righteousness
dikaioō: justified, justify, righteous
dikaiōma: righteousness, justification
dikaiōs: justly, righteously, righteousness
dikaiōsis: justification

How are we justified. If we sin, then by us being good it does not nor cannot undo what we have done.  Also by doing good today, this obviously does not give us the right to sin tomorrow.

The wages of sin is death and all have sinned and come short Romans 6:23 and Romans 3:23 — so all are deserving of the death penalty. So if you want to know what we DESERVE this is it.

There is no mechanism in the law that allows us to build up brownie points ahead of time or after the fact in order to do away with our past or future sins or more specifically the death penalty.

Jesus Christ’s sacrifice is the only thing that can take away the death penalty.

John 1:29  The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!

Romans 5:8  But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.

Romans 5:9  Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.

Romans 5:10  For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. [by the resurrected Christ]

Justification: The act of pronouncing righteous or just before God; acquitted.

Justify is to be deemed right before God

We are brought into a right relationship with God — we are justified!

How are we made right? We repent [of what] sins;  our sins separate us from God [Isaiah 59:2]; we are reconciled, we are brought from enmity to a relationship with God; God removes the impediments between us and Him; With baptism – our sins are covered by the atoning sacrifice of Christ; Christ lives within us and because of this we can become righteous and it is not our righteousness but Christs righteousness living in us.

2 Corinthians 5:17  Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.

2 Corinthians 5:21  For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

Galatians 2:16  knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the law; for by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified.

Galatians 2:20  I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me.

If someone is on death row there is nothing they can do to get out of it…only a pardon will save them.

The law can’t justify us or make us righteous.  It can only happen by a free unmerited favor.

The curse for breaking the law is the death penalty and it can only be removed by justification.

Romans 2:13  (for not the hearers of the law are just in the sight of God, but the doers of the law will be justified;

You can just listen to what God is saying to us and think that is enough. When we stand before God, we can’t say that I knew these things, but didn’t do them.  We must be doing them.

But doing them does not justify us or make us right, but there is a necessity to do them to keep the law of God.  If we do then we WILL BE justified…we WILL BE made right.

(YLT)  for not the hearers of the law are righteous before God, but the doers of the law shall be declared righteous: —


Romans 3:10  As it is written: “THERE IS NONE RIGHTEOUS, NO, NOT ONE;

Isaiah 64:6  But we are all like an unclean thing, And all our righteousnesses are like filthy rags; We all fade as a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, Have taken us away.

Psalm 119:172  My tongue shall speak of Your word, For all Your commandments are righteousness.

1 John 3:7  Little children, let no one deceive you. He who practices righteousness is righteous, just as He is righteous.

You cannot be righteous if you do not practice/live rightly.

Repentance is turning around from your evil ways and living a Godly life.  What is a Godly way of life?  How is it defined?  God’s commandments are righteousness.

Philippians 3:9  and be found in Him, not having my own righteousness, which is from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith;

Good deeds do not do away with bad deeds, it is the sacrifice of Christ that does it.

Unrighteousness of Gentiles, Unrighteousness of Jews

So far we have looked at what justification means and showed that the root of just, justified, justification, was the same and often is used interchangeably in the Bible with right, righteous, righteousness

We defined Justification = made righteous; Only God can justify us; It is a gift that has been made available because of the sacrifice of Christ. We cannot make ourselves righteous by keeping the law – this does not undo the unrighteous acts that we have committed BUT the last scripture that we read says Romans 2:13 (for not the hearers of the law are just in the sight of God, but the doers of the law will be justified;

We saw in Psalms and 1 John that God’s commandments are righteousness and we have to practice righteousness to be righteous, just as God is righteous. [Psalm 119:172; 1 John 3:7]

…Realizing that as Galatians and Philippians puts it that it is not our own righteousness but Christ living in us by faith

Continuing now, Paul is still in the middle of showing the Jews their unrighteousness even though they had been given the law:

Romans 2:14 for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves,

Moving the comma [there were no commas in Greek] can make this clearer

for when Gentiles, who do not have the law by nature, do the things in the law…

Romans 8:7 Because the carnal mind [mind of the flesh; ie not Spirit or Godly] is enmity [an enemy] against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.

We read just previously that they were doing the opposite

Romans 1:26 … the natural use for what is against nature.

Ephesians 2:3 among whom also we all once conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, just as the others.

and righteousness like filthy rags

2 Peter 1:4 by which have been given to us exceedingly great and precious promises, that through these you may be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.

They obeyed some things in the law as most do: kill steal etc, some more than others

Because there is a tree of the knowledge of good and evil

There are some things that the entire world by and large should see, but there will continue to be some things that they cannot see (ie Sabbath, sunset to sunset) those Godly things had to be given or revealed.

Romans 2:15 who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them)

Conscience: comes from a word that means to see our self; to understand or become aware, and to be conscious or informed of

Because of this even they were able to judge to a degree what was right and what was wrong.

Romans 2:16 in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

Romans 2:12 For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the law will be judged by the law

Romans 2:16 in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

Jews ignored law as well as the Gentiles ignored [end of chapter 1]

Judged according to what? It can’t be judged whether God gave you righteousness, He knows whether or not He did that, so that doesn’t need to be done here.

Romans 2:14-16 shows that they will all be judged by the same law

Romans 2:17 Indeed you are called a Jew, and rest on the law, and make your boast in God,

The audience he is speaking to is confirmed here.

And now Paul begins to address their pride they had in the fact that God have given the law to them

Romans 2:18 and know His will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law,

Romans 2:19 and are confident that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness,

Romans 2:20 an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, having the form of knowledge and truth in the law.


Prideful attitude in what they KNEW. They felt special and set apart because of this gift God had given to them, this understanding of the laws that were to be kept, an insight into the way God wants us to live, a way that would bring about health and prosperity.

But the problem was as we will now see is that they didn’t DO what they knew to do.

Romans 2:21 You, therefore, who teach another, do you not teach yourself? You who preach that a man should not steal, do you steal?
Romans 2:22 You who say, “Do not commit adultery,” do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples?
Romans 2:23 You who make your boast in the law, do you dishonor God through breaking the law?

The answer is yes and this is another scripture that says we should keep the law otherwise we dishonor God. Said another way: We honor God by keeping the law.

So what good was all this boasting if they didn’t keep the law? Of course it wasn’t good. And if you really understand the law and kept it properly you wouldn’t be acting this any way. But because they continued to act this way and break the law of God Paul writes:


Romans 2:24 For “THE NAME OF GOD IS BLASPHEMED AMONG THE GENTILES BECAUSE OF YOU,” as it is written. [Isaiah 52:5]

Another quote from Old Testament: Only chapters 5 and 6 don’t have them, not that this is significant, because Romans is technically one letter any way.

How important is our example today?

Romans 2:25 For circumcision is indeed profitable if you keep the law; but if you are a breaker of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision.


Circumcision was necessary to be able to take part in specific activities within the congregation of Israel or within Judaism. To not be circumcised was to be cut-off form God

Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised male child, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant.”

For instance: Had to be circumcised to partake of the Passover.

By this means, even outsiders could become a part of the congregation, could partake of the Passover.

But by breaking the law you were cutting yourself from God

Figuratively their circumcision became uncircumcision [which didn’t happen literally when they broke the law], but it made it unprofitable and of no-effect.


1 Corinthians 7:18 Was anyone called while circumcised? Let him not become uncircumcised. Was anyone called while uncircumcised? Let him not be circumcised.
1 Corinthians 7:19 Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing, but keeping the commandments of God is what matters.

keeps the righteous requirements of the law [law not done away], will not his uncircumcision be counted as circumcision?

Keeping the commandments, keeping the law is what matters and Paul is saying that here in Romans 2:25 as well that if you break the law you are as the uncircumcised were and that is “cut-off” from God

Romans 2:26 Therefore, if an uncircumcised man [Gentiles]


Yes, because now, with the coming of Christ, they/we are under the terms of the New Covenant.

Paul is saying, will not his [physical] uncircumcision be counted as [spiritual] circumcision

Paul is distinguishing between the physical law of circumcision and the rest of God’s spiritual law. There were some temporary laws like this and sacrifices that were done away with because of Jesus Christ coming. Paul goes on to explain this in more detail with the rest of the chapter.

Paul is pulling the rug out from under them, getting rid of their false foundation. This is a large part of their prideful attitude. See we are missing our foreskin – see how great we are? Sounds a bit silly when you say it this way. But this is what Paul is telling them that this is not what really matters and thereby is bringing them down a notch…showing their unrighteousness — which is the theme of this chapter.


Romans 2:27 And will not the physically uncircumcised [Gentile], if he fulfills the [spiritual] law, judge you who, even with your written code and circumcision, are a transgressor of the law?

(KJV) And shall not uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision dost transgress the law?

nature phusis phusikos (physical)


This would have been difficult at the very least for the Jews to accept.

Those who keep the Law will judge those who break the Law [in the short term; long term in the judgment]

Now we get to the heart of the matter so to speak:

Romans 2:28 For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh;
Romans 2:29 but he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the Spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not from men but from God.

Conversion is a change of heart, this is what the Jews were missing here.

Interestingly this is not a New Testament idea

Deuteronomy 10:16 Therefore circumcise the foreskin of your heart, and be stiff-necked no longer.

With Christ came the ability to have a circumcision of the heart


Deuteronomy 30:6 And the LORD your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, to love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul, that you may live.

Holy Spirit enabled to write

Romans 2:5 But in accordance with your hardness and your impenitent heart

2 Corinthians 3:3 clearly you are an epistle of Christ, ministered by us, written not with ink but by the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of fleshthat is, of the heart.

2 Corinthians 3:4 And we have such trust through Christ toward God.


Romans 3

Romans 3:1 What advantage then has the Jew, or what is the profit of circumcision?

Romans 3:2 Much in every way! [Still working with physical Jews today] Chiefly because to them were committed the oracles of God.

Utterances of God, the divine words of God.

Responsible for keeping the scriptures and calendar and Sabbath?

They were very COMMITTED, set up checks and balances

If we don’t believe this that it was given to the Jews to do this then everyone will do what is right in their own eyes


Romans 3:3 For what if some did not believe? Will their unbelief make the faithfulness of God without effect?

God said He would do it, so what are the odds that He will make sure that this happens?

Romans 3:4 Certainly not! Indeed, let God be true but every man a liar. As it is written: “THAT YOU MAY BE JUSTIFIED IN YOUR WORDS, AND MAY OVERCOME WHEN YOU ARE JUDGED.”

Romans 3:5 But if our unrighteousness demonstrates the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unjust who inflicts wrath? (I speak as a man.) [Paul not speaking as himself]


An issue at the time that Paul felt that he had to address, some of the same issues that exist to this day and comes in cycles.

Romans 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,

Romans 2:5 But in accordance with your hardness and your impenitent heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God,
Romans 2:6 who “WILL RENDER TO EACH ONE ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS”: Romans 2:8 but to those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness—indignation and wrath,

Romans 3:6 Certainly not! [He answers the question for clarity just in case you don’t know] For then how will God judge the world?


Romans 3:7 For if the truth of God has increased through my lie to His glory, why am I also still judged as a sinner?

Because we are Romans 3:23

for every man is a liar“, Romans 3:4, as he says, “I speak as a man“, Romans 3:5; wicked man,

“let God be true”

Romans 3:8 And why not say, “Let us do evil that good may come”?—as we are slanderously reported and as some affirm that we say. Their condemnation is just.

Seriously? Some said that Paul was saying this. He puts them in their place. Paul will address this again later. And we will too.

Romans 3:9 What then? Are we better than they? Not at all. For we have previously charged both Jews and Greeks that they are all under sin.


Paul now shifts gears a little

Gentiles + Jews is everyone any way

But now he begins to make no differentiation and addresses ALL mankind

Paul flips it around and puts it in perspective, not only are they not better, they’re not good

Paul says that everyone is equally bad:

All under sin and its curse; its penalty which is death.

As we go through :10-18 Paul is quoting the Old Testament Psalms, Proverbs, and Isaiah continues to show the value of the Old Testament and its application to our lives even in the New Testament times

And we see/know that God is not a respecter of persons

Romans 2:11 For there is no partiality with God.


If you can understand and get a grasp on this you will be light years ahead

2 Peter 3:15 and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you,
2 Peter 3:16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures.

Not impossible, but very profitable if we stick to it and allow the Bible to interpret the Bible

God is righteousness
Gentiles are unrighteousness
Jews are unrighteousness even though they have the law (which Paul makes clear many times, and will continue to do so today)
Everyone is unrighteousness

Paul finishes this up in the next 2 verse

Romans 3:19 Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.

This is saying that the whole world is under law to God.[Especially when we consider vs 23]and 6:2

Romans 5:12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned—

Romans 3:20 Therefore [summation] by the deeds [ergon: works] of the law no flesh [no one] will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

Paul is wrapping up what he has been harping on the Jews and subsequently anyone that wants to boast because they keep the law and think that it makes them righteous. In fact it defines them as sinners as we saw in the previous verse and Paul expounds a little more here.

Definition of Law – knowledge of sin; of right and wrong; the law defines sin; Romans 4:15 because the law brings about wrath; for where there is no law there is no transgression.

If Not By Law, How Are We Justified

If we cannot be made righteous by keeping the law, then how are we justified?

How are we declared righteousness or made righteousness?

Paul now explains this for the rest of the chapter.

Romans 3:21 But now [transition] the righteousness of God [in us — by justification] apart from the law is revealed [since it does not come by the law], being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets,

Book end to Romans 1:17 with our unrighteousness in between by contrast

the function of the law is separate from the function of justification by faith.

The function of the laws and commandments of God:

At least two functions of the law of God. Reflect the mind and character of God that we are to be reflecting as well as we keep the Law. Christ showed this perfectly

  • is to show men how to live
  • to show them what sin is.

Law shows [convicts] us our sinfulness and convicts of our deserving death.

No law can forgive sin. No law can give eternal life. That is not the function of law. The operation of justification is separate from commandments-keeping. Forgiveness and justification of one’s past sins can only come through the life, death and resurrection of Christ.

Romans 3:22 even the righteousness of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, to all and on all who believe. For there is no difference;

Not just any belief like “I believe in Christ” ie I believe that He came, but I believe in everything He stood for; His way of life that He set as an example for me to follow

There is no difference whether Jew or Gentile; black or white; male or female; IF you believe in the right way, ANYONE can be made righteous through this faith in Jesus Christ

Define: Righteousness = “being and doing right,”

Definitions: Faith and Belief

Noun. pistis

Verb. The word “believe” is pisteuo and it means to have faith (pistis) in.

The New Testament Greek word translated

“faith” is pistis, the same word also rendered


Like it means today. It basically means “firm persuasion”

and “conviction based upon hearing.” —to have complete trust in— (God)

“You believe that there is one God. You do well. Even the demons [fallen angels] believe—and tremble!” (James:2:19).

Romans 3:22 …. For there is no difference; [Why?] Romans 3:23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
Romans 3:24 being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,

Grace: Charis: favor [towards another; us][can you do me a favor, not based on what I have done] a giving love [redundant]; gracious;

Ephesians 2:5 even when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved),

Ephesians 2:8 For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God,

He does us favors without us deserving it, but because Christ came and gave himself for us that

Definition: redemption is a deliverance from death by means of payment; buying back

Colossians 1:14 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins.

1 Corinthians 6:20 For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.

1 Peter 1:18 knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers,
1 Peter 1:19 but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.

Romans 3:25 whom [speaking of Jesus Christ] God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance [patient self-control; restraint and tolerance.] God had passed over the sins that were previously committed,

Propitiation describes Jesus Christ’s sacrifice as the atonement for our sins against God — that heals a breach between two parties

Passed over – let the sins of earlier times go without punishment

At the time of the exodus, The blood of the lamb allowed the wrath of God to Passover His people

Romans 3:26 [to demonstrate at the present time His righteousness, that He might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

He was tolerant of our sins beforehand and didn’t execute payment for sin on us because of the plan that He was working out with, by and through His Son…this plan of justification.

Romans 3:27 Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No, but by the law of faith.

This is the point that Paul is trying to get across to the Jews.

The law of faith in Jesus Christ :26 We can’t boast because we didn’t do it, but it was given to us as a gift

Romans 3:28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith apart from the deeds [ergon: works] of the law.

Luther adds “faith alone”

James 2:21 Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar?
James 2:22 Do you see that faith was working together with his works, and by works faith was made perfect?
James 2:23 And the Scripture was fulfilled which says, “ABRAHAM BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS ACCOUNTED TO HIM FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS.” And he was called the friend of God.
James 2:24 You see then that a man is justified by works, and not by faith only.

A Living faith is validated by works; acts of obedience to God’s law

How do you find favor with God? How do you grow in favor?

Since the law is a reflection of the holy righteous character of God, how do WE exemplify it…naturally by keeping the law, doing what is right… righteous practicing righteousness, your commandments are righteous

Luke 24:46 Then He said to them, “Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day,

Luke 24:47 and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in His name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

Acts 26:20 but declared first to those in Damascus and in Jerusalem, and throughout all the region of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent, turn to God, and do works befitting repentance.

2 Corinthians 7:10 For godly sorrow produces repentance leading to salvation,

Romans 3:29 Or is He the God of the Jews only? Is He not also the God of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also,
Romans 3:30 since there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith.

The same thing

Philippians 3:9 and be found in Him, not having my own righteousness, which is from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith;

Romans 3:31 Do we then make void the law through faith? Certainly not! On the contrary, we establish the law.

Is the law done away with?

Establish = set up (an organization, system, or set of rules) on a firm or permanent basis; make stand

Romans 4

Paul Illustrates by Example

Romans 4:1 What then shall we say that Abraham our father has found according to the flesh?
Romans 4:2 For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God.

Then he did it by himself, but that was not the case:


It was because of Abraham’s act of faith that righteousness was imputed to him.

Accounted = same word as impute throughout the rest of the chapter = inventoried, concluded, ascribed (attribute to a particular person)

Romans 4:4 Now to him who works, the wages are not counted [imputed] as grace but as debt.

What is wage of sin? Death is the debt here because the law does not and cannot pay for the penalty.

Romans 4:5 But to him who does not work [to be justified] but believes on Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness, [in much the same way that Abraham did]

you cannot make God accept you because of something you do.

Romans 4:6 just as David also describes the blessedness of the man to whom God imputes righteousness apart from works:

Now he uses David’s example to define imputing righteousness. Quotes Psalm 32:1-2



Imputing righteous is flip side of letting the sin abide in someone because of their past transgressions. Instead of ascribing sin to them, God forgives us our sins upon repentance (doing our part) and covers them up that we may be justified.

OT shows these are not new concepts, but what God’s intentions and plans have always been

Romans 4:9 Does this blessedness then come upon the circumcised only, or upon the uncircumcised also? [Paul answered this question already, but now he is going to answer it with an example that they all knew, but apparently never deduced] For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. [true] Romans 4:10 How then was it accounted? While he was circumcised, or uncircumcised? Not while circumcised, but while uncircumcised. [The accounting happened before circumcision in the same way that it can happen now for the Gentiles] Romans 4:11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while still uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they are uncircumcised, that righteousness might be imputed to them also, [to Jew and Gentile and everyone alike] Romans 4:12 and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of the faith which our father Abraham had while still uncircumcised.
Romans 4:13 For the promise that he would be the heir of the world was not to Abraham or to his seed through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 
[which only comes by Christ]

This is the only conclusion that you can come to when you put together the order of events.

Galatians 3:16 Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but as of one, “AND TO YOUR SEED,” who is Christ.

Romans 4:14 For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void and the promise made of no effect,

If the law was all it took then why did Christ even have to come? Another great argument here. They believed on Christ to what end then?

Romans 4:15 because the law brings about wrath; for where there is no law there is no transgression.

Another defining scripture

Not meant to imply there is no law so we can’t sin

This is why we marked all the scriptures about the law not being done away with

We can turn this around and say: where there is law there is transgression

In other words the law defines sin

1 Timothy 1:8 But we know that the law is good if one uses it lawfully,
1 Timothy 1:9 knowing this: that the law is not made for a righteous person, but for the lawless and insubordinate, for the ungodly and for sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers,
1 Timothy 1:10 for fornicators, for sodomites, for kidnappers, for liars, for perjurers, and if there is any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine,

It is so an individual that sins knows he is sinning

Romans 4:16 Therefore it is of faith that it might be according to grace [God’s loving giving nature toward us], so that the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to those who are of the law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all [for EVERYONE] Romans 4:17 (as it is written, “I HAVE MADE YOU A FATHER OF MANY NATIONS”) in the presence of Him whom he believed—God, who gives life to the dead and calls those things which do not exist as though they did;
Romans 4:18 who, contrary to hope, in hope believed, so that he became the father of many nations, according to what was spoken, “SO SHALL YOUR DESCENDANTS BE.”
Romans 4:19 And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body, already dead (since he was about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah’s womb.
Romans 4:20 He did not waver at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God,
Romans 4:21 and being fully convinced 
[this is faith] that what He had promised He was also able to perform.
Romans 4:22 And therefore
Romans 4:23 Now it was not written for his sake alone that it was imputed to him,
Romans 4:24 but also for us. It shall be imputed to us who believe in Him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead,
Romans 4:25 who was delivered up because of our offenses, and was raised because of our justification. 
[because of our need for justification]


Romans 5

Romans 5:1  Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,


Romans 4:24 but also for us. It shall be imputed to us who believe in Him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead,

Romans 4:25  who was delivered up because of our offenses, and was raised because of our justification. [because of our need for justification]

Because reconciliation is taking place we can have peace

Justification has removed the enmity: [many say that they are good; Christ admitted that no one is good]

Titus 3:3  For we ourselves were also once foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving various lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.

Titus 3:4  But when the kindness and the love of God our Savior toward man appeared,

Titus 3:5  not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit,

Titus 3:6  whom He poured out on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior,

Titus 3:7  that having been justified by His grace we should become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.

Romans 5:2  through whom [Christ] also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.

Faith = a belief that we act upon

Grace is the charity of God, different aspects of Love He grants us.

Now notice how we come about this hope

Romans 5:3  And not only that, but we also glory in tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance;

Romans 5:4  and perseverance, character; and character, hope.

Do we see this progression in our life

Do you see now why you rejoice in tribulations [because of where it leads]

James 1:2  My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into various trials,

James 1:3  knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience.

What do you tell yourself when you are working out or exercising in order that you can keep going

Hebrews 12:1  Therefore we also, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us,

Hebrews 12:2  looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

Hebrews 12:3  For consider Him who endured such hostility from sinners against Himself, lest you become weary and discouraged in your souls.

Hebrews 12:4  You have not yet resisted to bloodshed, striving against sin.

Hebrews 12:11  Now no chastening seems to be joyful for the present, but painful; nevertheless, afterward it yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it. 

If we go about then we will be encouraged by the process

Romans 5:5  Now hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit which was given to us.

We have the Love of God because of the HS

It is interesting how John defines “the love of God”: 1Jn 5:3  For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments. And His commandments are not burdensome.

Romans 5:6  For when we were still without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.

feeble, impotent, powerless, without strength, weak; it was not within our capability to stand [:2] before JC came and accomplished what He did and also not before God began subsequently working in our lives

Romans 5:7  For scarcely for a righteous man will one die; yet perhaps for a good man someone would even dare to die.

We can relate to this;  Most would not be willing to do this, but it is exactly what Christ did.

Romans 5:8  But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.

And because of this it made our justification possible [along with many other things]

Romans 5:9  Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.

The guilt of past sins is removed by His blood;

But this is only a part of the equation because being justified does not change our nature or  character

It does clear us of penalty of sin that we cannot do by ourselves.  But this is just the beginning, because  We shall be saved: future tense: not saved now; an  implying that there is more for Christ to do with us

Justification is a necessary first step of being brought  into a right relationship with God.

Romans 5:10  For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.

Define reconcile: Brought into friendship from a state of disagreement or enmity;


Romans 8:6  For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace [tie into :1].

Romans 8:7  Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.

Romans 8:8  So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

Romans 8:9  But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His.

The dividing / separation

Isaiah 59:1  Behold, the LORD’s hand is not shortened, That it cannot save; Nor His ear heavy, That it cannot hear.

Isaiah 59:2  But your iniquities have separated you from your God; And your sins have hidden His face from you, So that He will not hear.

Isaiah 59:3  For your hands are defiled with blood, And your fingers with iniquity; Your lips have spoken lies, Your tongue has muttered perversity.

Isaiah 59:4  No one calls for justice, Nor does any plead for truth. They trust in empty words and speak lies; They conceive evil and bring forth iniquity.

Isaiah 59:5  They hatch vipers’ eggs and weave the spider’s web; He who eats of their eggs dies, And from that which is crushed a viper breaks out.

Isaiah 59:6  Their webs will not become garments, Nor will they cover themselves with their works; Their works are works of iniquity, And the act of violence is in their hands.

Isaiah 59:7  Their feet run to evil, And they make haste to shed innocent blood; Their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity; Wasting and destruction are in their paths.

Isaiah 59:8  The way of peace they have not known, And there is no justice in their ways; They have made themselves crooked paths; Whoever takes that way shall not know peace.

Isaiah 59:9  Therefore justice is far from us, Nor does righteousness overtake us; We look for light, but there is darkness! For brightness, but we walk in blackness!

2 Corinthians 5:18-20

Ephesians 2:14-19

We are not saved by His blood but by His life by What he is doing now for us

He acting as a High Priest, Mediator and Intercessor on our behalf because of this we shall be saved: future tense

Hebrews 4:14-16
1 Timothy 2:5

Romans 5:11  And not only that, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation [atonement].

Restoration of the way that the relationship should be. In a way that we can and should be at one with God

Now coming to what some have called the most difficult passage in the NT: 12-21:

Romans 5:12  Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned—

Adam [look up original sin]., Augustine, bad latin translation, not going to get into all the spin off problems

Inherited guilt – because of Adam and Eve’s sin we are guilty, even if we are sinless [so what is the problem with this?]

death spread to all men, because all sinned—

We don’t have the death penalty because of Adam, but b/d of Romans 3:23 and Romans 6:23

There was no sin in the world until Adam and Eve broke the law

Shows that the law has been around since the beginning of the world, if there was sin at that time.  Some think it was initially given at Sinai. Sinai was regiving or codification [writing down for the Israelites who had been in slavery for centuries]

“death spread to all men” Satan and sin are indiscriminant.

Romans 5:13  (For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

Paul can mean many different laws when he uses the word nomos for law.

Romans 7:22  For I delight in the law of God according to the inward man.

Romans 7:23  But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

Parenthetical thought in conjunction with previous verse, in particular: because all sinned

Law in effect at Adam and Eve as well as Abraham

Genesis 26:5

What was the law that “entered” or was added later?

Gal 3:16  Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but as of one, “And to your Seed,” who is Christ.

Gal 3:17  And this I say, that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant that was confirmed before by God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect.

Gal 3:18  For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no longer of promise; but God gave it to Abraham by promise.

Gal 3:19  What purpose then does the law serve? It was added because of transgressions, till the Seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was appointed through angels by the hand of a mediator.

Gal 3:20  Now a mediator does not mediate for one only, but God is one.

Gal 3:21  Is the law then against the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a law given which could have given life, truly righteousness would have been by the law.

Gal 3:22  But the Scripture has confined all under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.

Gal 3:23  But before faith came, we were kept under guard by the law, kept for the faith which would afterward be revealed.

Gal 3:24  Therefore the law was our tutor to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

Gal 3:25  But after faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor.

Does this passage teach us that the Ten Commandments or the Law has been abolished

1st Clue:  We learned from Galatians 3:17 and 19 that “the law” was “added” “four hundred and thirty years” after God’s covenant with Abraham.

2nd Clue:  This “law” was added “because of transgressions.”

We know already that sin is the transgression of the law.

3rd Clue:  The law referred to in Galatians 3 was added because people had sinned—because they had transgressed God’s law.

because Paul tells us in Romansans 4:15, “…where there is no law there is no transgression.”

Can’t then refer to the Ten Commandments or the “Law” that was in effect but to a different set of rules altogether.

Adam and Eve; Cain and Abel; Abraham,  Jacob etc…

All sinned [previous verse] so there was a law, so he has to be referring to another law.

Romans 5:14  Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.

From Adam to Moses a reference back to giving of sacrificial law

Death reigned because man rejected God and continued to sin

Adam knew God from the beginning and even saw and talked to Him from the beginning

No sin around him until satan

Several unique things about his relationship with God / first human sin

We didn’t sin in the way that Adam did, but we sinned nonetheless. My sins are not your sins and your sins are not someone elses sins, but they are your personal sins and are viewed that way by God

1 Corinthians 15:45 And so it is written, “THE FIRST MAN ADAM BECAME A LIVING BEING.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.

But Adam fell way short of the opportunity that he had and Paul goes on to show this in following verses even though  it seems obvious….

Romans 5:15  But the free gift is not like the offense. For if by the one man’s offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many.

(CEV)  But the gift that God was kind enough to give was very different from Adam’s sin. That one sin brought death to many others. Yet in an even greater way, Jesus Christ alone brought God’s gift of kindness to many people.

Because of Adam’s sin mankind was set on a course of death and destruction

Kicked out of the Garden of Eden and shut off from the tree of Life

He and his descendants

Began right away with Cain

And has continued

Romans 5:16  And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned. For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation, but the free gift which came from many offenses resulted in justification.

Again, it seems obvious….but the contrast continues

The free gift did not come from the one that sinned. That sin resulted and led to a judgment of condemnation.  But God’s gift of justification came because ALL sins

Adam -> condemnation

JC -> justification

Romans 5:17  For if by the one man’s offense death reigned through the one, much more those who receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.)

Continuing contrast

Philippians 3:8  Yet indeed I also count all things loss for the excellence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as rubbish, that I may gain Christ

Philippians 3:9  and be found in Him, not having my own righteousness, which is from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith;

Romans 5:18  Therefore, as through one man’s offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation, even so through one Man’s righteous act the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life.


Romans 5:19  For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous.

Original sin again.

With :12 Romans 14:12  So then each of us shall give account of himself to God.

We have to repent of our sins, not someone elses

Ezekiel 18:20  The soul who sins shall die. The son shall not bear the guilt of the father, nor the father bear the guilt of the son. The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself.

Ezekiel 18:21  “But if a wicked man turns from all his sins which he has committed, keeps all My statutes, and does what is lawful and right, he shall surely live; he shall not die.

Ezekiel 18:22  None of the transgressions which he has committed shall be remembered against him; because of the righteousness which he has done, he shall live.


God does not impute or assign sin where it is not deserved

The concept of original sin is obviously false, so how do we reconcile what is being said here?

Because of Adam’s sin he was forced out of the Garden of Eden as we mentioned before. He was cut off from God, His help and everything that God could do for Adam.

Because of this all of humanity was, by default, cut off from the tree of life, the power unto life, and instead they did not have the opportunity to be justified, made righteous,  but rather be “made sinners”.

This began right away as we can see in the example of Cain and has continued down throughout the history of mankind as they all, as we all have sinned and brought the death penalty upon ourselves.

Now the rest of the verse so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous.

In the same way that we are not made sinners by default, we are not made righteous by default.   We do not inherit Adam’s sin for no reason nor do we inherit righteousness of Christ for no reason.

It is our following in Adam’s path that leads to sin and death.
It is our following in Christ’s path that leads to righteousness and life.

We will talk more about this as we get into chapter 6

Suffice it to say, we are responsible for our own actions and those actions have consequences whether we follow Adam and his way or Christ and His…the decision is in our hands

Romans 5:20  Moreover the law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more,

To convict us more of just how bad and wrong sin is.

Make it more obvious, make it stand out in their minds more. Help them to see the effect of sin.

Law was already here. So what law entered or was added so that they could see their sins more clearly?

That’s what the sacrificial law did.

(BBE)  And the law came in addition, to make wrongdoing worse; but where there was much sin, there was much more grace:

(CEV)  The Law came, so that the full power of sin could be seen. Yet where sin was powerful, God’s kindness was even more powerful.

MoreoverG1161 the lawG3551 entered,G3922 thatG2443 theG3588 offenceG3900 might abound.G4121 ButG1161 whereG3757 sinG266 abounded,G4121 graceG5485 did much more abound:G5248

Grace had to be more abundant. God’s giving supersedes our sinning

Romans 5:21  so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

so that, just as sin ruled by bringing death, so also grace might rule by bringing justification that results in eternal life through Jesus Christ


Romans 6

Romans 5 ends by Paul addressing the fact that righteousness is a gift and Christ’s life led to our being justified (declared righteous) freely by grace. Now…

Romans 6:1  What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound?

Are we to sin so that magnanimity of God can be shown?  Do we need to act bad so that God can act good?  Ludicrous but some were saying this.

I have my suspicions as to why people came up to this conclusion

Knowing human nature, this just allows them to continue heading in the wrong direction, not resisting the pulls of the flesh but giving in to and now coming up with this playground excuse, “My sinning allows God to show grace towards us”

1 Peter 1:16  because it is written, “BE HOLY, FOR I AM HOLY.”

Leviticus 11:44, Leviticus 19:2, Leviticus 20:7;

What does Amos 3:3 say? Can two walk together, unless they are agreed?

Romans 5 speaks of the necessity for reconciliation

Our sins separate us from God. Isaiah 59:2  And we are not being Holy as He is – so we cannot walk with God in agreement – in oneness.  We cannot be at one with God if we are sinning.

How does Paul answer?  Emphatically yet again:

Romans 6:2  Certainly not! How shall we who died to sin live any longer in it?

Check point: a location whose exact position can be verified to aid navigation.

We are to come OUT of it and not live IN it any longer.  That was there problem, they were content to live IN it and use the excuse that it makes God great because He can show more grace.

Romans 6:3  Or do you not know that as many of us as were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into His death?

Our death to sin.

“For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him” (2 Corinthians 5:21).

Isaiah 53:6  … And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

Isaiah 53:11  … For He shall bear their iniquities.

Isaiah 53:12  … And He bore the sin of many, …

John 1:29  The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!

Sin and its penalty was buried with Christ and died

In a similar way we go down into the watery grave and die as Christ did, the difference being is that we go down with our own sins.

Now notice how Paul continues to emphasize our union WITH Christ in this process down through :8; we do not do this alone; that He goes through all of these things WITH us

Romans 6:4  Therefore [Summing up this aspect of whether we should sin or not.] we were buried with Him through baptism into death, that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.

We see that baptism is a symbolic nurial and resurrection pointing to a literal-> burial at death then resurrection at the return of Christ

walk in newness of life …

2 Corinthians 5:17  Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.

Action; how we are to be acting; walk as Jesus Christ walked; walk with Him

1 John 2:3  Now by this we know that we know Him, if we keep His commandments.

1 John 2:4  He who says, “I know Him,” and does not keep His commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him.

1 John 2:5  But whoever keeps His word, truly the love of God is perfected in him. By this we know that we are in Him.

1 John 2:6  He who says he abides in Him ought himself also to walk just as He walked.

We have a life now of Christ in us.  We do not want to involve Christ in our sin, but we want to involve ourselves in His life.

Galatians 2:20  I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me.

Romans 6:5  For if we have been united together in the likeness of His death, certainly we also shall be [can we say united] in the likeness of His resurrection,

United = (KJV) planted together G4854

What we have to look forward to.  We will struggle and strive in this life, but:

Romans 6:6  knowing this, that our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves of sin.

Romans 6:7  For he who has died has been freed from sin. [freed from the penalty of sin and the hold it has on us]

Ephesians 4:22  that you put off, concerning your former conduct, the old man which grows corrupt according to the deceitful lusts,

Ephesians 4:23  and be renewed in the spirit of your mind,

Ephesians 4:24  and that you put on the new man which was created according to God, in true righteousness and holiness.

Ephesians 4:25  Therefore, putting away lying, “LET EACH ONE OF YOU SPEAK TRUTH WITH HIS NEIGHBOR,” for we are members of one another.

Ephesians 4:26  “BE ANGRY, AND DO NOT SIN“: do not let the sun go down on your wrath,

Colossians 2:12  buried with Him in baptism, in which you also were raised with Him through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead.

Colossians 2:13  And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses,

Colossians 3:1  If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God.

We are then to be acting a certain way

Colossians 3:9  Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds,

Colossians 3:10  and have put on the new man who is renewed in knowledge according to the image of Him who created him, [perfect, holy righteous, character][we are to be moving on to perfection like Him]

Colossians 3:11  where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcised nor uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave nor free, but Christ is all and in all.

Colossians 3:12  Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering;

Colossians 3:13  bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, if anyone has a complaint against another; even as Christ forgave you, so you also must do.

Romans 6:8  Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with Him,

Romans 6:9  knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no longer has dominion over Him.

Paul expounds on this a little more:

2 Timothy 2:11  This is a faithful saying: For if we died with Him, We shall also live with Him.

2 Timothy 2:12  If we endure, We shall also reign with Him. If we deny Him, He also will deny us.

Matthew 24:13  But he who endures to the end shall be saved.

If we die with Jesus Christ and then live with Him, then we will indeed live with Him forever

Romans 6:10  For the death that He died, He died to sin once for all [this is what we were  talking about in :3]; but the life that He lives, He lives to God.

He lives a Godly life the same type of life we are to live now

Romans 6:11  Likewise you also, reckon yourselves to be dead indeed to sin [because they have been baptized], but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Live a Christian life following the example of Christ and the one that He left for us and the one that He lives now :10

Romans 6:12  Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts.

We are to continue to fight against human nature. Not sin. Obey the law.

It is not once saved always saved!

Romans 6:13  And do not present your members as instruments of unrighteousness to sin, but present yourselves to God as being alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God.

Speaking to baptized Christians

What does this say of the respect that we should have for what Christ did for us?

Romans 6:14  For sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under [penalty of the ] law but under grace.

*We are NOT to sin even more so now.  Paul is saying that now that we are under grace we should now more than ever KEEP the LAW and not sin.

How different is this from what the world teaches!  Paul is going to be very disappointed in the resurrection.  He painstakingly made it clear that the we are not to sin and we are to keep the law with statements like this in :15

Romans 6:15  What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Certainly not!

Check point! a location whose exact position can be verified to aid navigation as we pilot our way through this book.

Instead of  Shall we sin we can just as easily say, “Shall we break the law?”

Paul is now saying that it is now more than ever incumbent upon us to keep the law now that we are “under grace”

NOW that: Romans 5:5  Now hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

NOW that: Romans 5:10  For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.

NOW that: we are walking in this new life / in step / in sync with Him

NOW that: we are under grace / NOW that God has shown us His grace His love

NOW that we know 1 John 5:3  … the love of God, is keeping His commandments

NOW that we know Psalm 119:172  all Your commandments are righteousness.

NOW that we know we are slaves to righteousness we should keep ALL the commandments of God

Romans 6:16  Do you not know that to whom you present yourselves slaves to obey, you are that one’s slaves whom you obey, whether of sin leading to death, or of obedience leading to righteousness?

We live a life of obedience, one way or the other.  Do you obey God or Do you obey ______

We are to be slaves to righteousness; righteousness  is Ten Commandments

Psalm 119:172  My tongue shall speak of Your word, For all Your commandments are righteousness.

Psalm 119:165  Great peace have those who love Your law, And nothing causes them to stumble.

Romans 6:17  But God be thanked that though you were slaves of sin, yet you obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine to which you were delivered.

Paul is thankful, to God who made it possible for them to understand the teaching / doctrines that they had been given.

Things are different now that by the Grace of God we understand the type of life that we are to lead. By God’s Grace [His love that He gives to us Romans 5:8  But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. We did not do anything to deserve it or earn it, yet He showed us favor by giving us the gifts such as repentance, faith, and righteousness so that we could begin to understand and obey His doctrines ]

Romans 6:18  And having been set free from [penalty of ] sin, you became slaves of righteousness.

Hebrews 10:4  For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats could take away sins.

Through His blood, we have the forgiveness of sins. (Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14)

This comes after His death. We must call upon it.

Hebrews 10:26  For if we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins,

Hebrews 10:27  but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation which will devour the adversaries.

Romans 8:7  Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.

Now that we have God in us and working with us, we CAN keep the commandments and please God.

To which way do we submit?

Romans 6:19  I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you presented your members as slaves of uncleanness, and of lawlessnessleading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves of righteousness for holiness.

We understand some of these things because of the analogies of the flesh until we grow

Romans 6:20  For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness.

We come under the full effects of the law when we come to the knowledge of it.  For us that time is now. Those that God is working with, those that will be in the first resurrection.  Most others will have their chance after the second resurrection. We have the choice of whether to obey God’s Word, His Law or not now and live.

Romans 6:21  What fruit did you have then in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death.

This is where this way of life leads

Romans 6:22  But now having been set free from sin, and having become slaves of God, you have your fruit to holiness, and the end, everlasting life.

This is where this way of life leads

Galatians 5:18  But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.

Galatians 5:19  Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lewdness,

Galatians 5:20  idolatry, sorcery, hatred, contentions, jealousies, outbursts of wrath, selfish ambitions, dissensions, heresies,

Galatians 5:21  envy, murders, drunkenness, revelries, and the like; of which I tell you beforehand, just as I also told you in time past, that those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.

Galatians 5:22  But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,

Galatians 5:23  gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.

Galatians 5:24  And those who are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.

Galatians 5:25  If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.

Romans 6:23  For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

This is what we earn for our works of sin, that is what we earn, so eternal life has to be a gift and it, or salvation is yet another gift that we receive by the grace of God.


Romans 7

We will need the framework that we have established to understand what we will be talking about today.

Romans 7:1  Or do you not know, brethren [speaking to the church] (for I speak to those who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man as long as he lives?

Both physically and spiritually

Romans 6:9  knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, dies no more.  Death no longer has dominion over Him.

Death no longer has power over us, in that we have been freed from the death penalty because Christ paid it for us.

Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under law but under grace.

Sin no longer has the power of death over us as it did before

Now we will see in this instance that the law has power over us while we are alive, it has the power to convict us as a sinner.  But when we are dead, the penalty has been paid in addition to the fact that we are no longer sinning….

Seems obvious, but Paul has a much deeper and more profound point to make.

 Romans 7:2  For the woman who has a husband is bound by the law to her husband as long as he lives. But if the husband dies, she is released from the law of her husband.

 So far, so good, seems reasonable

 Romans 7:3  So then if, while her husband lives, she marries another man, she will be called an adulteress; but if her husband dies, she is free from that law, so that she is no adulteress, though she has married another man.

 What law is Paul referring to here?  10 COMMANDMENTS!  He is saying that the law, the 10 COMMANDMENTS,  are still binding.

Romans 7:4  Therefore, my brethren, you also have become dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you may be married to another—to Him who was raised from the dead, that we should bear fruit to God.

Dead to the law: [talked about dying with Christ and dying to sin in the previous chapter] dead in the eyes of the law; the death penalty is no longer over us and the law no longer has that power over us.

[without comma separated clause] you also have become dead to the law through the body of Christ that we should bear fruit to God.

We become a part of the body of Christ when we receive the Holy Spirit (chapter 8) – and by that spirit we should bear the fruit of the spirit (Galatians 5:22)

Now here is the most profound statement.  Not only is Paul speaking of the transformation that has now happened in our lives but also he is now describing the previous and present relationship that God had in the Old Covenant and now has in the New Covenant and why there was a change and how it was brought about.

that you may be married to another—to Him who was raised from the dead

We have been talking in the previous verses about the marriage covenant between man and woman and now Paul is relating that to the marriage covenant between Christ, the God of the Old Testament, and Israel and how that one is now void through the death of one of the parties in the agreement or contract…and how that now makes way for the New Covenant or a New Marriage to spiritual Israel (Romans 2:28-29)

Jeremiah 31:32  not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD.

Israel agreed not to WORSHIP the false gods of the Gentiles and to be OBEDIENT to the Law of God and in return He promised material blessings of great wealth and health.

This was the agreement, the contract, the covenant.

Covenant is Not the Same as the Law

A Covenant is based on them keeping the Law

Israel said, “I do” to the covenant (it was not one sided). But “Israel did not honor the covenant”

They rejected God and played the harlot with many lovers even though God pleaded with her through His prophets.  He kept trying to show her the error of her ways, but she would not listen,

Jeremiah 31:33  But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

He will marry spiritual Israel

Romans 2:28  For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh;

Romans 2:29  but he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the Spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not from men but from God.

Deuteronomy 5:29  Oh, that they had such a heart in them that they would fear Me and always keep all My commandments, that it might be well with them and with their children forever!

Hebrews 8:6  But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises.

Hebrews 8:7  For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second.






Hebrews 8:13  In that He says, “A NEW COVENANT,” He has made the first obsolete. Now what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away.

Now back to the scripture at hand.

There were only two ways that God could technically get out of His marriage — either ALL of Israel would have to die or He would…and because of the promises that God had made, Israel could not cease to exist. So, through the death of Jesus Christ, the Old Covenant could be terminated and a new Marriage Covenant could be entered into with the Church; those who had God’s Holy Spirit.

But not only did Christ die severing the marriage contract, but we die as well in the eyes of the law and are free to “remarry.”

Revelation 19:7  Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.”

Revelation 19:8  And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.

Revelation 19:9  Then he said to me, “Write: ‘Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!’ ” And he said to me, “These are the true sayings of God.”

Romans 7:5  For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were aroused by the law were at work in our members to bear fruit to death.

KJV – For when we were in the flesh, the motions [sufferings / afflictions] of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death.

When we [Israelites did not have God’s spirit within us, the sufferings of sin, the fruit of sin that comes from breaking the law was at work within us.

This is the outcome of fallible humans trying to keep the law on their own.

Romans 7:6  But now we have been delivered from the law, having died to what we were held by, so that we should serve in the newness of the Spirit and not in the oldness of the letter.

delivered from the [penalty of the] law; the condemnation of the law

 having died to what we were held by

What were we held by? SIN! But we are no longer ensnared by it:

Romans 6:6  knowing this, that our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves of sin.

Romans 6:7  For he who has died has been freed from sin.

Romans 6:11  Likewise you also, reckon yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord.

This is how we then serve in the newness of the Spirit

We rise from the watery grave of baptism and have hands laid upon us and receive the Holy Spirit, the power of God within us, that we may do the “good and acceptable and perfect will of God.”

Paul switches gears here a little and clarifies if there is any doubt of what he is alluding to:

Romans 7:7  What shall we say then? Is the law sin? Certainly not! On the contrary, I would not have known sin except through the law. [He says this in a good way] For I would not have known covetousness unless the law had said, “YOU SHALL NOT COVET.”

Check point; time to make sure that we are on track and the ship is righted.

He doesn’t want to do these things and he is saying that the law helped him in this respect; it showed him what sin was so that he could avoid it and be pleasing in the sight of God. Paul knows that sin separates him and us from God (Isaiah 59:2).

Romans 7:8  But sin, taking opportunity by the commandment, produced in me all manner of evil desire. For apart from the law sin was dead.

Being unaware of sin, prior to conversion, Paul had no idea of the wrong direction that he was heading

Without the clause set off by commas: Sin produced all manner of evil desire, because he thought there was no law that he had to obey

[Romans 4:15 where there is no law there is no sin (or breaking the law)]

It takes a law being there to break it.  Paul was unaware

Romans 7:9  I was alive once without the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived and I died.

He thought he was alive only because he did not realize the rules that God required him to be subject to.

But when he found out the necessity to keep the commandments as well as how to keep them, he then understood that sin was the breaking of that law and carried a penalty with it.

God’s law had convicted him in the same way that it should us.

Romans 7:10  And the commandment, which was to bring life, I found to bring death.

The law is to show us the character and nature of God, the way they live and how they want us to live; the way that leads to being like them and eventually being with them

How did it bring death:  Romans 6:23

Romans 7:11  For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it killed me.

 Speaking metaphorically

For sin deceived me and used the commandment to kill me.

James 1:13  Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God”; for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone.

James 1:14  But each one is tempted when he is drawn away by his own desires and enticed.

James 1:15  Then, when desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, brings forth death.

Romans 7:12  Therefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy and just and good.

Come to a conclusion again on the previous matter

The law and commandments are of God and they are righteous and good [this is an understatement]

Convicting me that I am sinner and as a depiction of the nature of God

So if there is any doubt up to this point, Paul straightens it out

Romans 7:13  Has then what is good [the law] become death to me? Certainly not! But sin, that it might appear sin, was producing death in me through what is good, so that sin through the commandment might become exceedingly sinful.

Romans 7:14  For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am carnal, sold under sin.

 Again with the law

We continue to fight the good fight.

Paul, now 25-30 years into his Christian battle

The battle within; the battle of the mind; the internal battle

Romans 7:15  For what I am doing, I do not understand. For what I will to do, that I do not practice; but what I hate, that I do.

Notice that it is in present tense; not what he used to do

Paul’s self-evaluation as an apostle

Romans 7:16  If, then, I do what I will not to do, I agree with the law that it is good.

He didn’t want to do it.  [Just like us]

Romans 7:17  But now, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells in me.

Personification of human nature

Romans 7:18  For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) nothing good dwells; for to will is present with me, but how to perform what is good I do not find.

Our natural self is not righteous;  that is why we are to put on the righteousness of God

Cannot be done in and of ourselves

Romans 7:19  For the good that I will to do, I do not do; but the evil I will not to do, that I practice.

Romans 7:20  Now if I do what I will not to do, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells in me.

Our strength is inadequate

Romans 7:21  I find then a law, that evil is present with me, the one who wills to do good.

Romans 7:22  For I delight in the law of God according to the inward man.

Here is Paul’s view on the law.  Paul wants to keep the law.  It is just, holy and good.

Romans 7:23  But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

1 John 4:1  Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God; because many false prophets have gone out into the world.

1 John 4:2  By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God,

1 John 4:3  and every spirit that does not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God. And this is the spirit of the Antichrist, which you have heard was coming, and is now already in the world.

1 John 4:4  You are of God, little children, and have overcome them, because He who is in you is greater than he who is in the world.

1 John 4:5  They are of the world. Therefore they speak as of the world, and the world hears them.

1 John 4:6  We are of God. He who knows God hears us; he who is not of God does not hear us. By this we know the spirit of truth and the spirit of error.

1 John 4:7  Beloved, let us love one another…

Romans 7:24  O wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?

Paul’s final assessment of the previous verses.  Still in present tense.  An apostle for 25 Years plus or minus 5.

Human nature does not go away…but we don’t have to be slaves to it.

Romans 7:25  I thank God—through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, with the mind I myself serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin.

There is hope.  The mind is the seat of thought and the holy spirit.  DOES serve the LAW of God.

The flesh that he/we comes out of serves sin.


Romans 8

The Holy Spirit Chapter

Romans 7:24 O wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?

Romans 7:25 I thank God—through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, with the mind I myself serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin.

Because of this change:

Romans 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who do not walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.

The way we were versus the way we are now with the spirit of God in us.

Now that Jesus Christ came and did all that He did,

And now that we have been justified

And now that we continue to live a righteous life and serve the law of God…

I do not walk in the carnal ways that I used to, but now walk according to the way that exemplifies Jesus Christ in me.

If we live this way we will not be condemned



Krino – to judge

Katakrino – to judge against (condemn)

Krima – Judgment (as in The final Judgment) Condemnation


katakrima the final verdict; the final condemnation; the final judgment


Romans 2:13 the doers of the law will be justified; [future tense]; those who do not walk according to the flesh

We read in Romans 3:24 that we are “being justified” it is an ongoing process of those who walk in the spirit or are being led by the spirit.

Romans 5:8–10 It is Christ’s life in us that accounts for our justification

Galatians 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; ….

This is why we receive no condemnation.

It is interesting in all of this that when grace, justification, condemnation (the final verdict) and judgment are spoken of it is of a Judge that pardons us from what, the penalty of the law, which both, the penalty and the law, have to be in effect for there to be a need to receive grace and justification

Romans 8:2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death.

Some make this out to be the doing away the law, that we are free from the law and somehow the law of the spirit is a new set of rules that we are under, but we don’t have to keep….

2 Definitions of Law (today)

  1. the system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and may enforce by the imposition of penalties.
  2. a statement of fact, deduced from observation, to the effect that a particular natural or scientific phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present. i.e. the law of gravity

Romans 7:6 But now we have been delivered from the law, having died to what we were held by, so that we should serve in the newness of the Spirit [which is what Paul was talking about in :1]

Romans 7:7 …. Is the law sin? Certainly not! On the contrary,….

Romans 7:8 But sin, taking opportunity by the commandment, produced in me all manner of evil desire [which leads to death]….

This is what we are made free from

CEV: The holy spirit will give you life that comes from Christ Jesus and will set you free from sin and death.

Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh, 

weak through the flesh (context is different, but the principle is the same) Hebrews 8:7-8 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second. Because finding fault with them

in the likeness of sinful flesh the Son of God came and was born with the same human nature that we all are born with and was obedient to God. He never broke the Law and He overcame sin while a human being. As a human, He had the same influences that we all have and He was tempted in all points yet without sin (Hebrews 4:15). So thereby He condemned sin in the flesh

Romans 8:4 that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

What is the requirement of the law: obedience

Matthew 26:41 Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

What we cannot do through the flesh because we were weak we can now do by the power of the holy spirit …we can obey God and His Word, the Law

Romans 8:5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.

This is to be our mindset.

Philippians 4:8 Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are noble, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy–meditate on these things.

Colossians 3:1 If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God.

Colossians 3:2 Set your mind on things above, not on things on the earth.

Romans 8:6 For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.

To think on and go after the wrong things leads to death, and of course the opposite is true.

Romans 8:7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.

Memorization scripture

Also a major key to understanding the human condition.

This is the explanation of why mankind resists the law of God.

Keeping the law in the flesh is a self-righteousness and comes up way short, because our righteousness is as filthy rags.

It takes the mind of God in us to be able to keep the law that is the righteous requirements of the law, which is being obedient to the Law of God

Romans 8:8 So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

Cannot please Him at all

When we were in the flesh we were missing a necessary component – which is the holy spirit:

Romans 8:9 But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His.

you are not in the flesh We are human, but not acting according to the flesh, the way that we used to.

Crucial definition of a Christian and subsequently of the church: Now understand this: You must have the spirit of God in you to “be His” to be a true Christian!

Of course there is a process to receiving the holy spirit.

Romans 8:10 And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.

We were as good as dead when were only subject to the penalty for sinning, but now with the help of the holy spirit, the righteous requirement of the law [can] be fulfilled.

Paul continues to make the link between the holy spirit and the Law. Now that we have Spirit within us we can more perfectly keep the law which is righteousness (Psalm 119:172 My tongue shall speak of Your word, For all Your commandments are righteousness. )

John speaks to this correlation in:

1 John 3:24 Now he who keeps His commandments [practices righteousness by definition] abides in Him, and He in him [Christ is in you]. And by this we know that He abides in us [Christ is in you], by the Spirit whom He has given us.

Romans 8:11 But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.

Through His Spirit in us we will be given eternal life. God has given us an earnest of the spirit as a down payment or guarantee of this future.

Romans 8:12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors–not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.

We are not bound by or to the flesh. Jesus Christ paid the penalty and ransom for us. He redeemed us, bought us back!

1 Corinthians 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the holy spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

1 Corinthians 6:20 For you were bought at a price [So now our debt is to Him and what do we owe]; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.

Paul continues this train of thought in:

Romans 8:13 For if you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

put to death the deeds of the body: Works still necessary, there are things that we still have to do – ie stop sinning – these are accomplished by and through the power of God in us

Colossians 3:5 Therefore put to death your members which are on the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry.

Colossians 3:6 Because of these things the wrath of God is coming upon the sons of disobedience,

Colossians 3:7 in which you yourselves once walked when you lived in them.

Colossians 3:8 But now you yourselves are to put off all these: anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy language out of your mouth.

Colossians 3:9 Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds,

Colossians 3:10 and have put on the new man who is renewed in knowledge according to the image of Him who created him,

Romans 8:14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.

The intimation here is that this is being done continually.

This further defines: Who is a true Christian – those currently being led

This is not a one-time event, where you accept the Lord and then that is it. We must continually act in the manner that we were describing in the previous verse. If we do then we can be considered a Christian and a Son of God because we have that earnest of the spirit working in us.

Romans 8:15 For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, “Abba, Father.”

spirit of bondage [slavery] not to fear; God’s spirit is one of freedom and liberality and does not weigh us down with any type of burdensome yoke.

But rather it is a Spirit that leads to “sonship”





From a presumed compound of G5207 and a derivative of G5087; the placing as a son, that is, adoption (figuratively Christian sonship in respect to God): – adoption (of children, of sons).





Apparently a primary word; a “son” (sometimes of animals), used very widely of immediate, remote or figurative kinship: – child, foal, son.





A prolonged form of a primary word θέω theō


Adoption = sonship, the placing as a son but with all the rights and privileges that go with it

We are placed into the Family

Abba – very affectionate term of endearment

It was used by Jesus Christ:

Mark 14:36 And He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for You. Take this cup away from Me; nevertheless, not what I will, but what You will.

It shows that we too can have this same type of very close relationship that the Son had…we will be sons of the same family of God

Romans 8:16 The Spirit Himself [KJV:itself] bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God,

Romans 8:17 and if children, then heirs–heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified together.

A little insight that the holy spirit works with the human spirit. Paul expounds more on this relationship in:


1 Corinthians 2:10 But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God.

1 Corinthians 2:11 For what man knows the things of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so no one knows the things of God except the spirit of God.

1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit who is from God, that we might know the things that have been freely given to us by God.

1 Corinthians 2:13 These things we also speak, not in words which man’s wisdom teaches but which the holy spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual.

1 Corinthians 2:14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

1 Corinthians 2:15 But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is rightly judged by no one.

1 Corinthians 2:16 For “WHO HAS KNOWN THE MIND OF THE LORD THAT HE MAY INSTRUCT HIM?” But we have the mind of Christ.

and in this case it testifies to the following facts: that we are children of God, heirs of God (we are to inherit what God has) and we are to do it with Jesus Christ our elder brother of the same family.

Now notice what Jesus Christ is to inherit

Hebrews 1:2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds;

Hebrews 2:5 For He has not put the world to come, of which we speak, in subjection to angels.

Hebrews 2:6 But one testified in a certain place, saying: “WHAT IS MAN THAT YOU ARE MINDFUL OF HIM, OR THE SON OF MAN THAT YOU TAKE CARE OF HIM?


Hebrews 2:8 YOU HAVE PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET.” For in that He put all in subjection under him, He left nothing that is not put under him. But now we do not yet see all things put under him.

Romans 8:18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.

Philippians 3:21 who [Lord Jesus Christ] will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body, according to the working by which He is able even to subdue all things to Himself.

Romans 8:19 For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God.

Romans 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope;

Romans 8:21 because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

Romans 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now.

Paul uses words like futility or vanity and corruption to describe how the physical world is running down and moving towards decay and degeneration,

The creation is figuratively has hope for how good it can actually be

  • In the short term: (millennium) and
  • In the long term: Waiting for the spiritual heaven and earth

Paul is setting up this analogy to say this:

Romans 8:23 Not only that, but we also who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the sonship adoption [same word as above], the redemption of our body. [into that glorious one that was previously addressed]

Romans 8:24 For we were saved in this hope, but hope that is seen is not hope; for why does one still hope for what he sees?

Romans 8:25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with perseverance.

The futility of this world and all it has to offer – death, disease, sickness, famine, war, false religion – does it not create HOPE!

How much more do eagerly await the Hope of the resurrection, of salvation, of eternal life, of His calling, of His Glory, of His Gospel

To put off mortality and corruption and put on immortality become incorruptible

This is what having the firstfruits of the spirit does:

Romans 8:26 Likewise the Spirit also helps in our weaknesses. For we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.

Romans 8:27 Now He who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because He makes intercession for the saints according to the will of God.

Romans 8:34 Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.

Hebrews 7:25 Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.

1 Timothy 2:5 For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus,

John 4:24 God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.”

1 Corinthians 15:45 And so it is written, “THE FIRST MAN ADAM BECAME A LIVING BEING.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.

2 Corinthians 3:17 Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.

Revelation 2:23 I will kill her children with death, and all the churches shall know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts. And I will give to each one of you according to your works.

Romans 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.

[Memorization scripture]

This only applies to those that are called

Purpose = not everyone called now.

God is doing everything for our good whether we see it or not

Romans 9:11 (for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works but of Him who calls),

Called John 6:44, 65 [memorization scriptures] We are seeing what it takes to be a Christian

Romans 8:29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.

This is what we are doing now

God wants us to become like the spiritual image of Christ – His character

God knows who and when He will insert into His plan.

Cyrus, Jeremiah, Christ

Romans 8:30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.

Calling things as though they were Romans 4:17 … calls those things which do not exist as though they did;

glorified can also mean receiving a portion of His spirit now, especially in light of the subject matter. Glorification will be when become full spirit beings.

Romans 8:31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?

World and Satan and even our own selves – all these things can be overcome

Romans 8:32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?

God the Father didn’t do all of this for naught, if He was going to go through the ignominy of sacrificing His own Son, He will most certainly continue with His plan give us everything we need to accomplish His goal in us.

Romans 8:33 Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.

Romans 8:34 Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.

:32 If God is working with us, and He is, who should bring a charge against us and “condemn” us? Need to be careful. Nonetheless we have Christ who is interceding for us on our behalf

Only Jesus Christ is risen and only He is making intercession for us – not Mary or the saints of the catholic church or who did I hear say something like the other day, your dead mother or father is looking over you….

Romans 8:35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?


We will have trials. What will take us away, knowing the HOPE that we have?

Romans 8:37 Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.

We can overcome

Conquerors = hupernikaō


From G5228 and G3528; to vanquish beyond, that is, gain a decisive victory: – more than conquer.

Romans 8:38 For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come,

Romans 8:39 nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Philippians 1:6 being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ;


Romans 9

This is one of the most difficult chapters for theologians to reconcile and defend God at the same time. How do you say God is righteous, just, and gracious when He calls some and allows others to “miss out”….

Outline Romans 9 – 11

They go together: God’s interaction with Israel in the past, present, and future

How God dealt with them in the past (chapter 9), how He is dealing with them in the present (chapter 10), and how He will deal with them in the future (chapter 11)


Romans 9:1 I tell the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Spirit,

Romans 9:2 that I have great sorrow and continual grief in my heart.


Romans 9:3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed [devoted to destruction: anathema] from Christ for my brethren, my countrymen according to the flesh,

Paul was willing to give up his salvation if it meant that they didn’t deny Christ. [as we will see in the last verses]

What are we willing to give up or do for the brethren; if Paul was this willing to go this far how willingly should we be to lay down our lives for the brethren?

John 15:13 Greater love has no one than this, than to lay down one’s life for his friends.

Not necessarily physically, but a life of sacrifice and love towards them

Romans 9:4 who are Israelites, to whom pertain the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the service of God, and the promises;

God’s faithful and election of Israel

They were chosen because of the promises to Abraham, not because of anything that they did or were.

the adoption [by God as His on people], the glory [in the tabernacle or temple where he resided; moses beheld it on Sinai; led them for 40 years in the wilderness], the covenants,[to Abraham, Moses, David] the giving of the law,[to govern their religious, political and social life; with guaranteed blessings] the service of God,[ministry tabernacle temple priesthood] and the promises [Deuteronomy 28; Leviticus 26] This is what God gave to them and did not give it to any others

Romans 9:5 of whom are the fathers [patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob] and from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God. Amen.

Promises to them

Christ came through this lineage [through his seed] to save mankind

Romans 9:6 But it is not that the word of God has taken no effect. For they are not all Israel who are of Israel,

In spite of all of this they failed. In fact they crucified Christ, but this does not mean that the word of God has come up short. But rather, as Paul will explain, God has a purpose that He is working out that might not seem self-evident

they are not all [spiritual] Israel who are of [physical] Israel

Romans 9:7 nor are they all children because they are the seed of Abraham; but, “IN ISAAC YOUR SEED SHALL BE CALLED.”

Not Ishmael the first born, but it is through Isaac

Paul is now beginning to set up and show that God does not work through those that we think He is or should be working through. God has His reasons and His ways!

Romans 9:8 That is, those who are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God; but the children of the promise are counted as the seed.

Paul is saying that in the same way those that are physically of Isaac are not necessarily or ultimately the children of God

Romans 9:9 For this is the word of promise: “AT THIS TIME I WILL COME AND SARAH SHALL HAVE A SON.”

Romans 9:10 And not only this, but when Rebecca also had conceived by one man, even by our father Isaac

Romans 9:11 (for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works but of Him who calls),

Called not because of works, not born yet

Romans 9:12 it was said to her, “THE OLDER SHALL SERVE THE YOUNGER.”

You would think that Esau being the first born would have the rights. But God does it according to His will. Not because of the physical but on promise and purpose and those that had the characteristics He wanted to work through

Neither had been born so this choice was not made based on who they were or what they had done (not because of our righteousness; or no one would be called or chosen), but on God’s will and the fact that He extends His grace / love towards us and does not make the decision based on what we would

Romans 9:13 As it is written, “JACOB I HAVE LOVED, BUT ESAU I HAVE HATED.”

The direction that Edom had gone in the interim since birth

Malachi 1:2 “I have loved you,” says the LORD. “Yet you say, ‘In what way have You loved us?’ Was not Esau Jacob’s brother?” Says the LORD. “Yet Jacob I have loved;

Malachi 1:3 But Esau I have hated, And laid waste his mountains and his heritage For the jackals of the wilderness.”

Malachi 1:4 Even though Edom has said, “We have been impoverished, But we will return and build the desolate places,” Thus says the LORD of hosts: “They may build, but I will throw down; They shall be called the Territory of Wickedness, And the people against whom the LORD will have indignation forever.

It was who Esau had become and the direction he had chosen even after knowing God’s way

This is part of how God’s election works. It is for HIS reasons

The main point is that God chose Jacob over Esau (even though Esau was first), it was His will that mattered not ours.

He was making a point. He could have just as easily had Jacob come out first.

From this we should see how specific and special our calling is. God can and may have chosen us from the womb like he did Jeremiah, John the Baptist, Christ and Jacob even when there were two in there at the time and the other one came out first. This also shows that it was nothing that they did, it was not based on works, there were none – this shows the glory and power of God in us.


Romans 9:14 What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? Certainly not!

Does this make God unrighteous because he chooses one over another?

The intelligent of the world do not understand. What about those before Jesus Christ; bushmen of the Kalahari; the non-christian religions; atheists;

God is not unfair because all will have the opportunity to have salvation. In fact He is just the opposite, He is righteous


Not only is God not unrighteous but He has always done things this way.

Exodus 33:19 Then He said, “I will make all My goodness pass before you, and I will proclaim the name of the LORD before you. I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.”

Because God has a plan that He is working out and He knows best how to accomplish it.

Do you want to know why God called you? Because He decided to have mercy and compassion on you now at this moment. Because He knew that you could answer His calling now and make it through the time that you were called in and come out the other end successfully.

It is not mercifully and compassionate to call someone to failure.

1 Timothy 2:3-4 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.

God is calling you now because He knows that you can and will make it in spite of the times that we are living in. In the millennium it will be a different story. Satan will be sequestered away. God will be in charge, the Holy Spirit will be flowing freely, it will be the Kingdom of God as we have imagined it.

Do you think it will be easier at that time to answer the calling that God is sending out…than it is at this time?

God chose you right now for the better resurrection, because He knew that you could go through the trials and tribulations that you are going through today and still become a firstfruit, a first born member in the family of God.

That is why God called you today.

Romans 9:16 So then it is not of him who wills [not us], nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.

According to what God is working out


1 Corinthians 1:25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

1 Corinthians 1:26 For you see your calling, brethren, that not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called.

1 Corinthians 1:27 But God has chosen the foolish things of the world to put to shame the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to put to shame the things which are mighty;

1 Corinthians 1:28 and the base things of the world and the things which are despised God has chosen, and the things which are not, to bring to nothing the things that are,

1 Corinthians 1:29 that no flesh should glory in His presence.

1 Corinthians 1:30 But of Him you are in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God—and righteousness and sanctification and redemption—

1 Corinthians 1:31 that, as it is written, “HE WHO GLORIES, LET HIM GLORY IN THE LORD.”

Romans 9:18 Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens.

They were times when Pharaoh became recalcitrant on his own

Notice how Jesus Christ enlightens us to the meaning of the rest of this verse

Matthew 13:11 He answered and said to them, “Because it has been given to you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given.

Matthew 13:12 For whoever has, to him more will be given, and he will have abundance; but whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken away from him. [Remember that we are talking about Israel’s election in chapter 9; they had the things of God: adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the service of God, and the promises]

Matthew 13:13 Therefore I speak to them in parables, because seeing they do not see, and hearing they do not hear, nor do they understand. [here is the key, they had a chance to act on these things but instead went the wrong direction:]

Matthew 13:14 And in them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says: ‘HEARING YOU WILL HEAR AND SHALL NOT UNDERSTAND, AND SEEING YOU WILL SEE AND NOT PERCEIVE;


Matthew 13:16 But blessed are your eyes for they see, and your ears for they hear;

Matthew 13:17 for assuredly, I say to you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see what you see, and did not see it, and to hear what you hear, and did not hear it.


Romans 9:19 You will say to me then, “Why does He still find fault? For who has resisted His will?”

Now do we understand…because we have our part in the hardening and rejection of God’s ways as we just read in Matthew.

Romans 9:20 But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed say to him who formed it, “Why have you made me like this?”

Can we protest against God to any avail? What can we say or do any way even if we object greatly?

Job 11:7 “Can you search out the deep things of God? Can you find out the limits of the Almighty?

Job 11:8 They are higher than heaven— what can you do? Deeper than Sheol— what can you know?

Job 11:9 Their measure is longer than the earth And broader than the sea.

Job 11:10 “If He passes by, imprisons, and gathers to judgment, Then who can hinder Him?

Romans 11:33 Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out!

Isaiah 55:9 “For as the heavens are higher than the earth, So are My ways higher than your ways, And My thoughts than your thoughts.

This puts things in perspective:

Romans 9:21 Does not the potter have power over the clay, from the same lump to make one vessel for honor and another for dishonor?

He has chosen our paths for His purposes

Romans 9:22 What if God, wanting to show His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath prepared for destruction,

Romans 9:23 and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory,

Romans 9:24 even us whom He called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?

Jeremiah 18:3 Then I went down to the potter’s house, and there he was, making something at the wheel.

Jeremiah 18:4 And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter; so he made it again into another vessel, as it seemed good to the potter to make.

Jeremiah 18:5 Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying:

Jeremiah 18:6 “O house of Israel, can I not do with you as this potter?” says the LORD. “Look, as the clay is in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israel!

Whether nations or people, He can and does do this according to His mercy and compassion

God has the power over life and death.   What He does not have power over, is our character building. If He sees that the best way (and we can rest assured that it is) for us to come to Him is by witnessing the power and work of God as a vessel of dishonor and then coming up in the second resurrection at the great white throne judgment, then who are we to know and judge the ways of God?

Romans 9:25 As He says also in Hosea [prophecy in Hosea 2:23]: “I WILL CALL THEM MY PEOPLE, WHO WERE NOT MY PEOPLE [Gentiles], AND HER BELOVED, WHO WAS NOT BELOVED.”

Meaning the Gentiles

Paul repeats what we read before in Matthew:



Acts 28:28 “Therefore let it be known to you that the salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles, and they will hear it!”


We see here more of the justice of God. The Gentiles will also be called Sons of God.

Romans 9:27 Isaiah [Isaiah 10:20-23] also cries out concerning Israel: “THOUGH THE NUMBER OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL BE AS THE SAND OF THE SEA, THE REMNANT WILL BE SAVED.

Only a small portion in this life time will have the opportunity for salvation in the first resurrection.

When we understand the framework of the Bible, this is easy to understand and reconcile with a God that is Just. If we do not understand the simple truth of multiple resurrections then you see a God that cannot do what He says and is losing the proverbial battle to Satan.

But notice this:

Romans 11:25 For I do not desire, brethren, that you should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own opinion, that blindness in part has happened to Israel [like we were talking about before] until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.

Romans 11:26 And so all Israel will be saved….




Romans 9:30 What shall we say then? That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness of faith;

It wasn’t by their own power and intellect that the Gentiles were included in the plan of God. It surely wasn’t by their righteousness (ie God’s law and commandments which are righteousness Psalms 119:172) especially since the Gentiles were not given the same things that Israel had been given (covenants, the giving of the law, the service of God, and the promises)

They have attained righteousness by grace, the love of God…the only way that they can initially be gotten.

Romans 9:31 but [physical] Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness.

Israel had the law but did not obey and live by it faithfully. They had an opportunity and came up short:

Romans 9:32 Why? Because they did not seek it by faith, but as it were, by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumbling stone.


The Jews had denied Christ and the weightier matters of the law, but rather thought that their works could and would save them. But because of God’s grace, the Gentiles were given a chance.

Attributes of God (each section begins with a question)

  1. His Faithfulness (Romans 9:1-13) to continue the plan of salvation
  2. His Righteousness (Romans 9:14-18) not unrighteousness.
  3. His Justice (Romans 9:19-29) in giving everyone an opportunity in their time and order
  4. His Grace (Romans 9:30-33) because we could not do any of this on our own


Romans 10

Paul dealt with Israel in the past in chapter 9 and now he begins to address present day Israel and their need for Christ and the Gospel. But the problem, as we will see, is that they have rejected them.

Romans 10:1 Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is that they may be saved.

Even now in the first, better resurrection, it was Paul’s desire that they be saved now.

Jews did not see the need for spiritual salvation; Jews thought they could earn their salvation through works, but they misunderstood.

Romans 10:2 For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge.

They had zeal like many in the world today but not according to what is right. Think of everything that they did in the name of God’s law and even added to it.

Mark 7:9 He said to them, “All too well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition.

Paul is once again emphasizing the need to follow God’s law and way, but in the right way.

Romans 10:3 For they being ignorant of God’s righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God.

Self-righteous; what is our righteousness like…

The only way that we can be righteous is by and through Christ in us.

Romans 10:4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.

“The law is done away with” Do you think that based on everything we have read and covered in this series on Romans?

Romans 3:31


To what “end” – what is the goalaim or purpose

KJV 1 Timothy 1:5 Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned:

NKJV 1 Timothy 1:5 Now the purpose of the commandment is love from a pure heart, from a good conscience, and from sincere faith,

So “therefore” Christ is the objective of the law, He set the perfect example of keeping the law. The purpose of the law is to show perfect holy righteous character of God and how we can conform and live our ways in the same manner.

KJV James 5:11 Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy.

Christ lived such an exemplary life that He showed us how the law of God should be manifest in us. He was the end of the law. He exemplified the end or purpose of the law. Christ is the end result of the law for righteousness

And this is where the Israelites should be looking

Romans 10:5 For Moses writes about the righteousness which is of the law, “THE MAN WHO DOES THOSE THINGS SHALL LIVE BY THEM.”

No one has ever done this except Christ, as we just read.

Romans 10:6 But the righteousness of faith speaks in this way, “DO NOT SAY IN YOUR HEART, ‘WHO WILL ASCEND INTO HEAVEN?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ down from above)

Romans 10:7 or, ” ‘WHO WILL DESCEND INTO THE ABYSS?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).

Romans 10:8 But what does it say? “THE WORD IS NEAR YOU, IN YOUR MOUTH AND IN YOUR HEART” (that is, the word of faith which we preach):

The righteousness of faith does not require an Herculean effort that is beyond mortal men, but God can make it accessible

Romans 10:9 that if you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.

Romans 10:10 For with the heart one believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.

Is he saying that a “death bed repentance” is sufficient? Can one scripture do away with everything else that we have read and learned and have come to understand?

We always have to let the Bible interpret the Bible

Matthew 7:21 “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father in heaven.

Matthew 7:22 Many will say to Me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Your name, cast out demons in Your name, and done many wonders in Your name?’

Matthew 7:23 And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness!’

Let’s look at another necessity in addition to confession:

James 2:18 But someone will say, “You have faith, and I have works.” Show me your faith without your works, and I will show you my faith by my works.

James 2:19 You believe that there is one God. You do well. Even the demons believe–and tremble!

James 2:20 But do you want to know, O foolish man, that faith without works is dead?

James 2:21 Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar?

James 2:22 Do you see that faith was working together with his works, and by works faith was made perfect?

Romans 10:11 For the Scripture says, “WHOEVER BELIEVES ON HIM WILL NOT BE PUT TO SHAME.”

We do what we believe

Romans 10:12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich to all who call upon Him.

We all become spiritual Israelite or Jew, so there is no spiritual distinction


This one verse, numbered after the fact has to be taken in context of the following verses as well as the rest of the bible as usual. This verse cannot be taken as a stand alone thought.

The answer is in the following verses and we see that there is a process to it.

Romans 10:14 How then shall they call on Him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher?

Not only is this the process by which God tried to reach them as well as us, but it is a diatribe against Israel and the fact that they have rejected the Gospel at present

Romans 10:15 And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: “HOW BEAUTIFUL ARE THE FEET OF THOSE WHO PREACH THE GOSPEL OF PEACE, WHO BRING GLAD TIDINGS OF GOOD THINGS!

Romans 10:16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Isaiah says, “LORD, WHO HAS BELIEVED OUR REPORT?”

Sent by God to preach; preaching causes hearing; hearing begets belief or faith; belief incites calling on God;

Sums it up

Romans 10:17 So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

We cannot simply “call on God” this process begins and even requires God throughout. In fact without God calling us we would never be able to truly call upon Him

Romans 10:18 But I say, have they [Israel] not heard? Yes indeed: “THEIR SOUND HAS GONE OUT TO ALL THE EARTH, AND THEIR WORDS TO THE ENDS OF THE WORLD.”

Romans 10:19 But I say, did Israel not know? [they knew they just didn’t act upon it or write it in their hearts] First Moses says: “I WILL PROVOKE YOU TO JEALOUSY BY THOSE WHO ARE NOT A NATION, I WILL MOVE YOU TO ANGER BY A FOOLISH NATION.”

Paul begins to show how God would use the Gentiles to put Israel to shame


The Gentiles


God did this through the prophets, those few with the Holy Spirit in Old Testament times and even through Jesus Christ. The Jews refused to recognize them.

All this being said, it may seem like God is done with the Israelites and has started working with the Gentiles, so Paul to be clear, shows how God will not cast them away but will continue working with them in the future, giving them the same chance that everyone will have.

Paul uses 5 Proofs to show that this will happen:

Romans 11

Proof 1 Paul

Romans 11:1 I say then, has God cast away His people? Certainly not! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.

If God had done this, how could Paul have been chosen and God worked with him?

Paul was a type and perhaps a foreshadow of the conversion of others in the future

1 Timothy 1:16 However, for this reason I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might show all longsuffering, as a pattern to those who are going to believe on Him for everlasting life.

Paul was part of this contrary crowd in the previous verse Romans 10:21

Proof 2 Elijah

Romans 11:2 God has not cast away His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying,


Elijah’s time was a time of great spiritual harlotry and idolatry.  Israel was more or less being run by the Queen of the tribes of Israel who had gotten rid of all of the prophets save one: Elijah

1 Kings 18:21 And Elijah came to all the people, and said, “How long will you falter between two opinions? If the LORD is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him.” But the people answered him not a word.

1 Kings 18:22 Then Elijah said to the people, “I alone am left a prophet of the LORD; but Baal’s prophets are four hundred and fifty men.

Because of this, Jezebel vowed to kill him which caused him despair and to utter the words of :3

But God let him in on a secret:

Romans 11:4 But what does the divine response say to him? “I HAVE RESERVED FOR MYSELF SEVEN THOUSAND MEN WHO HAVE NOT BOWED THE KNEE TO BAAL.”

Romans 11:5 Even so then, at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace.

Paul’s point is that even at this time when it seemed that all of Israel had gone astray in the past or that Israel in the present was coming to nought, God was still working with them as He promised He would.

Now it wouldn’t be all of them, but rather a remnant according to the plan of God, according to the best way He sees fit to dole out His love — according to His grace.

Romans 11:6 And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work.

Our calling or election (:6) is by grace; to think it is by works is to deny what God is doing. Of course this is where the Jews were off-base, in particularly the Pharisees – who thought that they could gain righteousness and salvation by works.

Romans 11:7 What then? Israel has not obtained what it seeks; but the elect have obtained it, and the rest were blinded.


God does this hardening of the heart and blinding of the eyes out of mercy as we covered in chapter 9. Also as we read at that time too, the Israelites were complicit in the process.



This zeal that they developed self-righteously, led them into the snare that they were in.

They burdened their own backs.

Proof 3 Gentiles

Romans 11:11 I say then, have they stumbled that they should fall? Certainly not! But through their fall, to provoke them to jealousy, salvation has come to the Gentiles.

Have the things that they have done, the stumbling blocks that they have put in front of themselves, have they caused the Israelites to fall away from God and His grace permanently?

NO, BUT… since the Israelites came up short, the calling and election was now going out to the Gentiles

AND through the Gentiles the Israelites would be stirred to action [provoke them to jealousy]

Jew first then the Gentiles [Romans 2:10]

Romans 11:12 Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!

Now salvation is offered to everyone else

If the world is helped this much by their failure, then think of how much more they will be helped when they are complete [fullness: plērōma], when they do not lack what lack now but are all with the program.

Zechariah 8:22-23 Yes, many peoples and strong nations Shall come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem, And to pray before the LORD.’ “Thus says the LORD of hosts: ‘In those days ten men from every language of the nations shall grasp the sleeve of a Jewish man, saying, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.” ‘ “

Romans 11:13 For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry,

Romans 11:14 if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them.

Even Paul employed this method of trying to light a fire under the Israelites by saying, “Look at the Gentiles, they are responding!” This had to be a slap in the face to the people who thought that they were the only chosen ones. But now they see God beginning to work with the people that they had looked down their noses at.

Romans 11:15 For if their [Israelites] being cast away is the reconciling of the [rest of the] world [Gentiles] , what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?

The Israelites will indeed have their chance in the future resurrection from physical death to physical life, but they will no longer be blinded and hardened and will be brought from spiritual death to spiritual life

Proof 4 Patriarchs [Romans 11:28 cites the fathers]

Romans 11:16 For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; and if the root is holy, so are the branches.

Reference to Numbers 15:17-21 If God accepted the one part of the lump, He accepted the whole/rest part

Paul is making an analogy that if you pull a piece of dough from the lump of dough and the piece is good then it stands to reason that the lump is good.

In the same way he begins to make the analogy of the root and branches of the olive tree which is Israel:

Romans 11:17 And if some of the branches [Israelites] were broken off, and you [Gentiles], being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree, [the promises made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who are the roots or foundation/beginning of the nation of Israel]

Romans 11:18 do not boast against the branches. But if you do boast, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you.

Don’t think more highly of yourself than you should. God started out with Abraham specifically and is built upon that, not upon you who are now being grafted in.

Romans 11:19 You will say then, “Branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.”

Romans 11:20 Well said. [Paul confirms that this is undeniably what God is doing] Because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Do not be haughty, but fear.

Reiterating the fact that they should not boast as he previously said in :18 and issuing this warning:

Romans 11:21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, He may not spare you either.

Romans 11:22 Therefore consider the goodness and severity of God [chapter 9]: on those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in His goodness. Otherwise you also will be cut off.

Israelites were broken off for rejecting God and Christ. If the Gentiles were to do the same then they would not be allowed to remain on the tree. The bottom line here is that everyone needs to watch their attitude

Romans 11:23 And they also, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.

God is not unmerciful to give them this opportunity in the future when it is their time. Physical Israel will have the chance to become spiritual Israel

Romans 11:24 For if you [Gentiles] were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?

contrary to nature… You don’t normally put the wild on the “domesticated or improved one, but vice versa

But in this instant, which is why it is contrary to nature, the wild olive [Gentiles] produce good fruit when they become spiritual Israel

Paul goes on to say that isn’t it then according to nature that the Israelites that were previously broken off be grafted back in?

Of course God wants to regraft Israel into spiritual Israel

Romans 11:25 For I do not desire, brethren, that you should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own opinion, that blindness in part has happened to Israel until the fullness [fullness: plērōma; :12] of the Gentiles has come in.

Mystery… for the world today, even though Paul is expounding upon it in the most read but least understood book on earth, but now we know why…because of the blindness that will remain intact until the completion of the time of the Gentiles, that will last until the return of Christ and the time that He will gather the Israelites from the four corners of the earth and make the holy spirit readily available to them.

All according to God’s timing

Romans 11:26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “THE DELIVERER WILL COME OUT OF ZION, AND HE WILL TURN AWAY UNGODLINESS FROM JACOB;


MY COVENANT … New covenant

I TAKE AWAY THEIR SINS … They will have the same opportunity for forgiveness and justification that those who have been called now have had.

Romans 11:28 Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers.

Same theme that because of the Israelites disbelief, their carnality and enmity towards God, the Gentiles now had the chance to be grafted into Israel thus perpetuating the promise God made toward Abraham and his ancestors.

Proof 5 God

Romans 11:29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.

2 Corinthians 1:18 But as God is faithful, our word to you was not Yes and No.

2 Corinthians 1:19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us—by me, Silvanus, and Timothy—was not Yes and No, but in Him was Yes.

2 Corinthians 1:20 For all the promises of God in Him are Yes, and in Him Amen, to the glory of God through us.

God will be faithful and diligent to do what He says that He is going to do.

Romans 11:30 For as you [Gentiles] were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience [Israelites],

Romans 11:31 even so these [Israelites],also have now been disobedient, that through the mercy shown you [Gentiles] they [Israelites], also may obtain mercy.

Israel will be shown mercy by the same mercy shown to the Gentiles

Romans 11:32 For God has committed them all to disobedience, that He might have mercy on all.

This has always been God’s plan. Salvation for all, each in his own time.

Romans 11:33 Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out!

He is thinking of Job here. How many times does Job say something similar?

Job 5:9 Who does great things, and unsearchable, Marvelous things without number.

Job 9:10 He does great things past finding out, Yes, wonders without number.

Job 11:7 “Can you search out the deep things of God? Can you find out the limits of the Almighty?

Job 11:8 They are higher than heaven— what can you do? Deeper than Sheol— what can you know?

Job 11:9 Their measure is longer than the earth And broader than the sea.

And then he goes on to quote two passages in Job.



Romans 11:36 For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen.

We cannot fully comprehend why God makes the decisions that He does…though we are being given a glimpse of it here in chapters 9-11. But what we do know is that God is doing it all in a fair, just, merciful and compassionate way in which ALL MANKIND will have the best hope of making it into the Family of God.


Romans 12

In the Book of Romans so far we have talked about justification, sanctification, salvation, reconciliation, redemption, but now Paul begins to bring it home with APPLICATION

How are we to be a Christian?  How are we to put God’s law into practice, the ongoing correlation between faith and works?

Chapter 12 shows us how to apply this way of life first toward God and then towards our fellow man

Romans 12:1 I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.

One of the most critical scriptures for us in this day and age to fully comprehend and implement.

I beseech you therefore…so this is really his summation and conclusion to all that we have read so far [chapters 1-11 ]

We should therefore sit up and take notice

Present…an obvious reference to the sacrifices of the Old Testament “present before the LORD”

It also goes hand in hand with what he previously covered in the letter

Romans 6:13 And do not present your members as instruments of unrighteousness to sin, but present yourselves to God as being alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God.

Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under law but under grace.

Romans 6:15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Certainly not!

Romans 6:16 Do you not know that to whom you present yourselves slaves to obey, you are that one’s slaves whom you obey, whether of sin leading to death, or of obedience leading to righteousness?

Romans 6:17 But God be thanked that though you were slaves of sin, yet you obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine to which you were delivered.

Romans 6:18 And having been set free from sin, you became slaves of righteousness.

Romans 6:19 I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you presented your members as slaves of uncleanness, and of lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves of righteousness for holiness.

So Paul is saying that we are not to present ourselves in an unclean disobedient and lawless manner, but rather in a righteous way following the example of Christ, we are to be a sacrifice too that is:

acceptable to God…how were sacrifices made or presented in an acceptable manner?

Without spot or blemish, it was to be done in the right way. There is also a right way for us to live

1 Peter 2:4 Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious,

1 Peter 2:5 you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthoodto offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

This is what Paul is about to expound on in this chapter

living sacrifice… Still sacrifices for today and this is where we come to the critical understanding for us today, especially in this time of the Philadephia/Laodicean era.

Revelation 12:10 Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, “Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down.

Revelation 12:11 And they overcame him by [these 3] the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death. [They were willing to give up their lives.]

Revelation 12:13 Now when the dragon saw that he had been cast to the earth, he persecuted the woman who gave birth to the male Child.

Revelation 12:14 But the woman was given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, where she is nourished for a time and times and half a time, from the presence of the serpent.

Revelation 12:15 So the serpent spewed water out of his mouth like a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away by the flood.

Revelation 12:16 But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the flood which the dragon had spewed out of his mouth.

Revelation 12:17 And the dragon was enraged with the woman, and he went to make war with the rest of her offspring, who keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. [but were not willing to lay down their lives; they did not present their bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God]

They were not willing to make the spiritual sacrifices as the Philadelphians had done, thus allowing the Philadelphians to be spared physically.

So what happens to the Laodiceans and the rest, they then must go through the tribulation and will have to lay down their life physically or perish spiritually.

This is how crucial it is to be a living sacrifice today!

which is your reasonable [logikos log-ik-os’ rational (“logical”): – reasonable, of the word.] service….

it is logical if you have God’s spirit – otherwise why would we do this?

We do it because we are servants, servants of God and servants to righteousness

As servants we present our bodies; we give them and sacrifice them as God requests because they are no longer ours to do with as we wish

Romans 8:12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors–not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.

Romans 8:13 For if you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

We are not bound by or to the flesh. Jesus Christ paid the penalty and ransom for us. He redeemed us, bought us back!

1 Corinthians 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

1 Corinthians 6:20 For you were bought at a price [So now our debt is to Him and what do we owe]; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.

Service is outward and now this is inward as Paul ties works to faith

Romans 12:2 And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God.

do not be conformed to this world…

Come out of the world

John 17:16 They are not of the world, just as I am not of the world.


Don’t be like the world; don’t let it pull you back into its grasp; don’t become that way again; the world will pressure you to be like it.

1 Corinthians 15:33 Do not be deceived: “Evil company corrupts good habits.”

But be transformed… metamorphoō met-am-or-fo’-o ; to transform (literally or figuratively “metamorphose”): – change, transfigure, transform.

A process of changing from what we were to what we are to become

Notice this conversion

2 Corinthians 3:18 But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed [metamorphoō] into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.

It occurs as we renew our mind:

Ephesians 4:20 But you have not so learned Christ,

Ephesians 4:21 if indeed you have heard Him and have been taught by Him, as the truth is in Jesus:

Ephesians 4:22 that you put off, concerning your former conduct, the old man which grows corrupt according to the deceitful lusts, [and conforming to the world]

Ephesians 4:23 and be renewed in the spirit of your mind,

Ephesians 4:24 and that you put on the new man which was created according to God, in true righteousness and holiness.

This transformation is something that we do, it comes through action

Towards God

Application of righteousness

Romans 12:3 For I say, through the grace given to me, to everyone who is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, as God has dealt to each one a measure of faith.

not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think…who are we compared to God any way – less than nothing, but a vapor or a shadow (Psalm 39:4-6). We need to keep this in perspective.

Don’t forget who God calls:

1 Corinthians 1:25-29 not many wise are called.

Philippians 2:5 Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus,

Philippians 2:6 who, being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God,

Philippians 2:7 but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men.

Philippians 2:8 And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.

Philippians 2:9 Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name,

Philippians 2:10 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth,

Philippians 2:11 and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Philippians 2:12 Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling;

Philippians 2:13 for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure.

measure of faith…. Jesus Christ was without measure; Elisha double portion of what Elijah had; we are given a measure according to the will of God, but not only that but with specific abilities

Romans 12:4 For as we have many members in one body, but all the members do not have the same function, [purpose or ability]

Romans 12:5 so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and individually members of one another.

We are to function in unity

Romans 12:6 Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, let us use them: if prophecy, let us prophesy in proportion to our faith [in proportion to what God has given us];

Romans 12:7 or ministry, let us use it in our ministering; he who teaches, in teaching;

Romans 12:8 he who exhorts, in exhortation; he who gives, with liberality; he who leads, with diligence; he who shows mercy, with cheerfulness.

Paul expounds on this a little more in

1 Corinthians 12:1 Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I do not want you to be ignorant:

1 Corinthians 12:4 There are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit.

1 Corinthians 12:5 There are differences of ministries, but the same Lord.

1 Corinthians 12:6 And there are diversities of activities, but it is the same God who works all in all.

1 Corinthians 12:7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to each one for the profit of all:

1 Corinthians 12:8 for to one is given the word of wisdom through the Spirit, to another the word of knowledge through the same Spirit,

1 Corinthians 12:9 to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healings by the same Spirit,

1 Corinthians 12:10 to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another discerning of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues.

1 Corinthians 12:11 But one and the same Spirit works all these things, distributing to each one individually as He wills.

1 Corinthians 12:12 For as the body is one and has many members, but all the members of that one body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ.

1 Corinthians 12:13 For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body–whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free–and have all been made to drink into one Spirit.

1 Corinthians 12:14 For in fact the body is not one member but many.

1 Corinthians 12:15 If the foot should say, “Because I am not a hand, I am not of the body,” is it therefore not of the body?

1 Corinthians 12:16 And if the ear should say, “Because I am not an eye, I am not of the body,” is it therefore not of the body?

1 Corinthians 12:17 If the whole body were an eye, where would be the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where would be the smelling?

1 Corinthians 12:18 But now God has set the members, each one of them, in the body just as He pleased.

Each of us serve the function that god would have us to; no need to be jealous and thereby question where God has put us;

1 Corinthians 12:19 And if they were all one member, where would the body be?

1 Corinthians 12:20 But now indeed there are many members, yet one body.

1 Corinthians 12:21 And the eye cannot say to the hand, “I have no need of you”; nor again the head to the feet, “I have no need of you.”

1 Corinthians 12:22 No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker are necessary.

1 Corinthians 12:23 And those members of the body which we think to be less honorable, on these we bestow greater honor; and our unpresentable parts have greater modesty,

1 Corinthians 12:24 but our presentable parts have no need. But God composed the body, having given greater honor to that part which lacks it,

1 Corinthians 12:25 that there should be no schism in the body, but that the members should have the same care for one another.

1 Corinthians 12:26 And if one member suffers, all the members suffer with it; or if one member is honored, all the members rejoice with it.

1 Corinthians 12:27 Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually.

are we content with the one that God deemed for us

We function properly when done so humbly and in unity where God has placed us and with what He has given us

Makes sense, if we had a business.  Isn’t this the way we would operate?

This is how God does it, it is how He wills it, and we honor and serve Him by using the gifts He gave us in humility, one with another in unity.

This is our reasonable service towards God.

Towards Man

Application of righteousness

Romans 12:9 Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil. Cling to what is good.

Hypocrisy = sincere, unfeigned, undisguised

So don’t disguise your feelings in this way. If it is evil, then we are to utterly detest it.

If it is good, then we are to stick to it like glue, which is the intimation of the word translated “cling”

Romans 12:10 Be kindly affectionate to one another with brotherly love, in honor giving preference to one another;

Let’s see this in:

Philippians 2:1 Therefore if there is any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any affection and mercy,

Philippians 2:2 fulfill my joy by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind.

Philippians 2:3 Let nothing be done through selfish ambition or conceit, but in lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than himself.

Philippians 2:4 Let each of you look out not only for his own interests, but also for the interests of others.

This is the service and sacrifice we are to be giving.

It is what God wants

Let’s look at Christ’s words in:

Matthew 20:25 But Jesus called them to Himself and said, “You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who are great exercise authority over them.

Matthew 20:26 Yet it shall not be so among you; but whoever desires to become great among you, let him be your servant.

Matthew 20:27 And whoever desires to be first among you, let him be your slave—

Matthew 20:28 just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”

James 4:6 But He gives more grace. Therefore He says: “GOD RESISTS THE PROUD, BUT GIVES GRACE TO THE HUMBLE.”

Psalm 51:16 For You do not desire sacrifice, or else I would give it; You do not delight in burnt offering.

Psalm 51:17 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit, A broken and a contrite heart— These, O God, You will not despise.

This is who god looks to: [humble and repentant person] Isaiah 66:2

The one:

Romans 12:11 not lagging in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord;

What ever your hand finds to do;

serving the Lord…[what is this doing in the section about serving man]

Matthew 25:34 Then the King will say to those on His right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:

Matthew 25:35 for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in;

Matthew 25:36 I was naked and you clothed Me; I was sick and you visited Me; I was in prison and you came to Me.’

Matthew 25:37 “Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink?

Matthew 25:38 When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You?

Matthew 25:39 Or when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’

Matthew 25:40 And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.’

What is our attitude and approach?

Romans 12:12 rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing steadfastly in prayer;

Philippians 4:11 … whatever state I am, to be content:

Romans 12:13 distributing to the needs of the saints, given to hospitality.

Giving and serving – being a living sacrifice

Sacrifice costs something … but it is for the greater gain

Now Paul steps it up a notch

Romans 12:14 Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse.

Paul now begins to talk about the opposite of sacrifice;

Matthew 5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘AN EYE FOR AN EYE AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH.’

Matthew 5:39 But I tell you not to resist an evil person. But whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also.

Matthew 5:40 If anyone wants to sue you and take away your tunic, let him have your cloak also.

Matthew 5:41 And whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two.

Matthew 5:42 Give to him who asks you, and from him who wants to borrow from you do not turn away.

Matthew 5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR and hate your enemy.’

Matthew 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you,

Matthew 5:45 that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust.

Matthew 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax collectors do the same?

Matthew 5:47 And if you greet your brethren only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the tax collectors do so?

Matthew 5:48 Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.

Retaliation only perpetuates the cycle of animosity

Galatians 5:14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this: “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.”

Galatians 5:15 But if you bite and devour one another, beware lest you be consumed by one another!

1 Peter 3:8 Finally, all of you be of one mind, having compassion for one another; love as brothers, be tenderhearted, be courteous;

1 Peter 3:9 not returning evil for evil or reviling for reviling, but on the contrary blessing, knowing that you were called to this, that you may inherit a blessing.




1 Peter 3:13 And who is he who will harm you if you become followers of what is good?

1 Peter 3:14 But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you are blessed. “AND DO NOT BE AFRAID OF THEIR THREATS, NOR BE TROUBLED.”

Romans 12:15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep.

Romans 12:16 Be of the same mind toward one another. Do not set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Do not be wise in your own opinion.

Romans 12:17 Repay no one evil for evil. Have regard for good things in the sight of all men.

1 Peter 2:19 For this is commendable, if because of conscience toward God one endures grief, suffering wrongfully.

1 Peter 2:20 For what credit is it if, when you are beaten for your faults, you take it patiently? But when you do good and suffer, if you take it patiently, this is commendable before God.

1 Peter 2:21 For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps:


1 Peter 2:23 who, when He was reviled, did not revile in return; when He suffered, He did not threaten, but committed Himself to Him who judges righteously;

What was Jesus Christ’s example when He was hit and spat upon and when He was accused, lied about and unfairly tried in court?



This is weakness in the eyes of man, but strength in the eyes of God

What is the example that we are setting for what we believe and how we represent the word of God?

Romans 12:18 If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peaceably with all men.

All things are possible with God

Romans 12:19 Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather give place to wrath; for it is written, “VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,” says the Lord.

God will do it when He sees fit.

We do not know how to justly do this within the plan of God any way and it is the opposite of what we are supposed to be doing.

Self-control over selfishness


Romans 12:21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Romans 13

Paul continues with his theme from chapter 12 and the application of righteousness, this time in relation to civil government and our neighbor

Towards Civil Government

Romans 13:1 Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God.

Man has rejected God as Sovereign

1 Samuel 8:1 Now it came to pass when Samuel was old that he made his sons judges over Israel.

1 Samuel 8:2 The name of his firstborn was Joel, and the name of his second, Abijah; they were judges in Beersheba.

1 Samuel 8:3 But his sons did not walk in his ways; they turned aside after dishonest gain, took bribes, and perverted justice.

1 Samuel 8:4 Then all the elders of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah,

1 Samuel 8:5 and said to him, “Look, you are old, and your sons do not walk in your ways. Now make us a king to judge us like all the nations.”

1 Samuel 8:6 But the thing displeased Samuel when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.” So Samuel prayed to the LORD.

1 Samuel 8:7 And the LORD said to Samuel, “Heed the voice of the people in all that they say to you; for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them.

God allows good and bad – Why (show man that his way will not work)

That being said: God rules over all – all nations, all people

He differentiates between those called and the rest of the world

Paul is answering to a degree the question of whether we should obey them at all

Within the kingdom there were many civil disputes

As has been the case at other times, before and after

With other people

This is nothing new

To what degree should we be involved in this? Or opposed to it?

Caveat: God’s way, rule and commands FIRST

Acts 4:13 Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were uneducated and untrained men, they marveled. And they realized that they had been with Jesus.

Acts 4:14 And seeing the man who had been healed standing with them, they could say nothing against it.

Acts 4:15 But when they had commanded them to go aside out of the council, they conferred among themselves,

Acts 4:16 saying, “What shall we do to these men? For, indeed, that a notable miracle has been done through them is evident to all who dwell in Jerusalem, and we cannot deny it.

Acts 4:17 But so that it spreads no further among the people, let us severely threaten them, that from now on they speak to no man in this name.”

Acts 4:18 So they called them and commanded them not to speak at all nor teach in the name of Jesus.

Acts 4:19 But Peter and John answered and said to them, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you more than to God, you judge.

Acts 4:20 For we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard.”

Acts 4:21 So when they had further threatened them, they let them go, finding no way of punishing them, because of the people, since they all glorified God for what had been done.

Acts 4:22 For the man was over forty years old on whom this miracle of healing had been performed.

Acts 4:23 And being let go, they went to their own companions and reported all that the chief priests and elders had said to them.

Acts 5:28 saying, “Did we not strictly command you not to teach in this name? And look, you have filled Jerusalem with your doctrine, and intend to bring this Man’s blood on us!”

Acts 5:29 But Peter and the other apostles answered and said: “We ought to obey God rather than men.

Let every soul [body / life] be subject to the governing authorities…

This includes us too. It could be seen as reasonable not to obey leaders, especially at the time that Paul was writing: Idolatrous and pagan men who had obtained rulership often by evil means and reigned in the same vein. Why should we obey their mishmash of paganism and civil laws when we have committed to following The Lawgiver and His perfect Law?

Example of Daniel not obeying the law of the land that was in contradiction to God’s

There is a time to make a stand and follow your conscience but that is not what Paul is talking about here

Yet Paul, like Jesus Christ subjected Himself to thel Roman rule over Israel: Paul in prison and Jesus Christ from the time of His birth was subject to them and He even subjected Himself in certain ways to the Jewish religious leaders’ extra rules and regulations as we will see later

John 18:35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?”

John 18:36 Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.”

For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God.

Daniel 2:21 And He changes the times and the seasons; He removes kings and raises up kings; He gives wisdom to the wise And knowledge to those who have understanding.

Daniel 4:17 ‘This decision is by the decree of the watchers, And the sentence by the word of the holy ones, In order that the living may know That the Most High rules in the kingdom of menGives it to whomever He will, And sets over it the lowest of men.’

Daniel 4:18 “This dream I, King Nebuchadnezzar, have seen. Now you, Belteshazzar, declare its interpretation, since all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known to me the interpretation; but you are able, for the Spirit of the Holy God is in you.”

Daniel 4:24 this is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree of the Most High, which has come upon my lord the king:

Daniel 4:25 They shall drive you from men, your dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make you eat grass like oxen. They shall wet you with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over you, till you know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomever He chooses.

Daniel 4:26 “And inasmuch as they gave the command to leave the stump and roots of the tree, your kingdom shall be assured to youafter you come to know that Heaven rules.

Daniel 4:28 All this came upon King Nebuchadnezzar.

Daniel 4:29 At the end of the twelve months he was walking about the royal palace of Babylon.

Daniel 4:30 The king spoke, saying, “Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for a royal dwelling by my mighty power and for the honor of my majesty?”

Daniel 4:31 While the word was still in the king’s mouth, a voice fell from heaven: “King Nebuchadnezzar, to you it is spoken: the kingdom has departed from you!

For the next seven years he lived as an animal

Daniel 4:34 And at the end of the time I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my understanding returned to me; and I blessed the Most High and praised and honored Him who lives forever: For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom is from generation to generation.

Daniel 4:35 All the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing; He does according to His will in the army of heaven And among the inhabitants of the earth. No one can restrain His hand Or say to Him, “What have You done?”

Daniel 4:36 At the same time my reason returned to me, and for the glory of my kingdom, my honor and splendor returned to me. My counselors and nobles resorted to me, I was restored to my kingdom, and excellent majesty was added to me.

Daniel 4:37 Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol and honor the King of heaven, all of whose works are truth, and His ways justice. And those who walk in pride He is able to put down.

Though it is natural (Romans 8:7 carnality) for us to resist God’s rule over us, who can stand against God?

God is very involved in the workings of man especially where we are involved and when it comes to fulfilling prophecy

Romans 13:2 Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves.

Be careful that you do not go against God and what God has put in place for His purposes.

Who does vengeance belong to?

We are committed to suffering wrong for righteousness’ sake

Romans 13:3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil. Do you want to be unafraid of the authority? Do what is good, and you will have praise from the same.

Typically governments are there for good reasons. God has allowed them to “preserve order”

We also see that they are not completely effective.

Do what we are supposed to do.

Romans 13:4 For he is God’s minister to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God’s minister, an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil.

Minister = diakonos / deacon = servant

But as we see even more clearly, if it isn’t already, this is a minister of government, not church (:6)

God is working in the people of the world, not in the same way, but for His purposes

Sword = capital punishment

Capital punishment is a deterrent

Example of lopping of hands; only foreigners are missing them, the locals know

Man’s way is to react after the fact

God’s way is to be proactive

Matthew 5:21-22

Spirit of the law

Subjugate thoughts before they turn into action; nip it in the bud

Romans 13:5 Therefore you must be subject, not only because of wrath but also for conscience’ sake.

Not only because of what they can do to you, but because of what I have said and what you are to do as a Christian

Example of Jesus Christ and Paul

Even if it comes down to it and we decide to obey God rather than man, we are still to submit to the wrong judgment of man in the sense that we cannot kill them in order to avoid going to jail, we cannot physically fight them to keep from going to jail, we cannot cast dispersions their way on our way to jail…in other words we have to continue to act as a Christian would.

Peter supports all of this

1 Peter 2:11 Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul,

1 Peter 2:12 having your conduct honorable among the Gentiles, that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may, by your good works which they observe, glorify God in the day of visitation.

1 Peter 2:13 Therefore submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake, whether to the king as supreme,

1 Peter 2:14 or to governors, as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good.

1 Peter 2:15 For this is the will of God, that by doing good you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men—

1 Peter 2:18 Servants, be submissive to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the harsh.

1 Peter 2:19 For this is commendable, if because of conscience toward God one endures grief, suffering wrongfully.

1 Peter 2:20 For what credit is it if, when you are beaten for your faults, you take it patiently? But when you do good and suffer, if you take it patiently, this is commendable before God.

1 Peter 2:21 For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that you should follow His steps:

Matthew 5:10 Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

1 Timothy 2:1 Therefore I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men,

1 Timothy 2:2 for kings and all who are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and reverence.

1 Timothy 2:3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior,

Romans 13:6 For because of this you also pay taxes, for they are God’s ministers attending continually to this very thing.

This confirms who we are talking about. Taxes are not for the church, but civil government

Matthew 22:15 Then the Pharisees went and plotted how they might entangle Him in His talk.

Matthew 22:16 And they sent to Him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, “Teacher, we know that You are true, and teach the way of God in truth; nor do You care about anyone, for You do not regard the person of men.

Matthew 22:17 Tell us, therefore, what do You think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?

Matthew 22:18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, “Why do you test Me, you hypocrites?

Matthew 22:19 Show Me the tax money.” So they brought Him a denarius.

Matthew 22:20 And He said to them, “Whose image and inscription is this?”

Matthew 22:21 They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” And He said to them, “Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”

Matthew 22:22 When they had heard these words, they marveled, and left Him and went their way.

Matthew 17:24 When they had come to Capernaum, those who received the temple tax came to Peter and said, “Does your Teacher not pay the temple tax?”

Matthew 17:25 He said, “Yes.” And when he had come into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, “What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take customs or taxes, from their sons or from strangers?”

Matthew 17:26 Peter said to Him, “From strangers.” Jesus said to him, “Then the sons are free.

Matthew 17:27 Nevertheless, lest we offend them, go to the sea, cast in a hook, and take the fish that comes up first. And when you have opened its mouth, you will find a piece of money; take that and give it to them for Me and you.”

Jesus Christ, because of who He was shouldn’t have had to pay and Peter should have fallen into the sons category. If there was someone who had the right to rebel it would have been Christ.

But rather than argue with a misguided and blinded authority, Jesus Christ submitted and paid the temple, thus setting an example. In the end, they had nothing of which to accuse Him.

Romans 13:7 Render therefore to all their due: taxes to whom taxes are due, customs to whom customs, fear to whom fear, honor to whom honor.

Office is to be respected

Is it ostensibly put in place for our protection, bringing lawbreakers to justice and keeping the peace.

In the end, to what degree do we need to be concerned about the civil government that we are under? The answer is to what degree do we believe the God that knows the whereabouts of the sparrows and insignificant number of hairs on your head, is completely involved in fulfilling His plans of prophecy and salvation as He said He would?

To go against the authority that God has put in place is to go against God!

Towards our Neighbor

Paul is going to sum it up in the next three verses, because honestly you could fill a book with all the specific ways that this can be fulfilled.

Romans 13:8 Owe no one anything except to love one another, for he who loves another has fulfilled the law.

We can’t ever fully repay this “debt” obligation because it is always there for us

We accrue a debt that is the penalty of sin which is death. This debt is paid for by Christ. Because of that, we are now indebted to love our fellow man.

That is to show them the same love that we have been shown. To act like a Christian towards them. By doing this we fulfill the law – make it more full – we give the law its full meaning and intent … and pay what we owe.

It is ridiculous to think that loving someone somehow does away with the law.

What most fail to see is the correlation between LOVE and LAW. Paul has been very clear throughout his epistle that the law is NOT done away with as we once again see here.

Now Paul is saying that the love we should be showing to others is the intent and basis of the law.

And in case the reader is left wondering what law we are talking about:

Romans 13:9 For the commandments, “YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY,” “YOU SHALL NOT MURDER,” “YOU SHALL NOT STEAL,” “YOU SHALL NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS,” “YOU SHALL NOT COVET,” and if there is any other commandment, are all summed up in this saying, namely, “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.”

These are the Commandments specifically towards our neighbor

Law defines Love

Matthew 22:36 “Teacher, which is the great commandment in the law?”


Matthew 22:38 This is the first and great commandment.

Matthew 22:39 And the second is like it: ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.’

Matthew 22:40 On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets.”

ALL of the Law depends on love and everything the Prophets did, said, and wrote in the name of God was based on love.

Romans 13:10 Love does no harm to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.

Luke 10:25 And behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested Him, saying, “Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?”

Luke 10:26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? What is your reading of it?


Luke 10:28 And He said to him, “You have answered rightly; do this and you will live.”

Luke 10:29 But he, wanting to justify himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?”

Luke 10:30 Then Jesus answered and said: “A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his clothing, wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.

Luke 10:31 Now by chance a certain priest came down that road. And when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.

Luke 10:32 Likewise a Levite, when he arrived at the place, came and looked, and passed by on the other side.

Luke 10:33 But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. And when he saw him, he had compassion.

Luke 10:34 So he went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine; and he set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him.

Luke 10:35 On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, ‘Take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I come again, I will repay you.’

Luke 10:36 So which of these three do you think was neighbor to him who fell among the thieves?”

Luke 10:37 And he said, “He who showed mercy on him.” Then Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”

Matthew 25:34 Then the King will say to those on His right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:

Matthew 25:35 for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in;

Matthew 25:36 I was naked and you clothed Me; I was sick and you visited Me; I was in prison and you came to Me.’

Matthew 25:37 “Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink?

Matthew 25:38 When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You?

Matthew 25:39 Or when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’

Matthew 25:40 And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.’

Matthew 25:41 “Then He will also say to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels:

John 14:15 “If you love Me, keep My commandments.

John 15:10 If you keep My commandments, you will abide in My love, just as I have kept My Father’s commandments and abide in His love.

2 John 1:5 And now I plead with you, lady, not as though I wrote a new commandment to you, but that which we have had from the beginning: that we love one another.

2 John 1:6 This is love, that we walk according to His commandments. This is the commandment, that as you have heard from the beginning, you should walk in it.

1 John 5:2 By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God and keep His commandments.

1 John 5:3 For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments. And His commandments are not burdensome.

When we understand this, we see the law in a different light. Not a stern taskmaster but a law of liberty and freedom, one that gives us so many opportunities and frees us from the penalties of sin.

Summation of Applying Righteousness

Romans 13:11 And do this, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep; for now our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.

Romans 13:12 The night is far spent, the day is at hand. Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light. [the armor of righteousness (2 Cor 6:7), which is the whole armor of God (Eph 6:11)]

Romans 13:13 Let us walk properly, as in the day, not in revelry and drunkenness, not in lewdness and lust, not in strife and envy.

We are to Watch!

Definitely closer now than it was when Paul wrote this

1 Thessalonians 5:4 But you, brethren, are not in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief.

1 Thessalonians 5:5 You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness. [So as those who are Christians and know better:]

1 Thessalonians 5:6 Therefore let us not sleep, as others do, but let us watch and be sober. [not drunk, but alert. Being sober is often mentioned in connection with being awake. Not only are we to be awake, we are to be alert and prayerful]

1 Thessalonians 5:7 For those who sleep, sleep at night, and those who get drunk are drunk at night.

1 Thessalonians 5:8 But let us who are of the day be sober…

Time is running out for us to accomplish that which we need to. NOW is the time to be doing what we are supposed to be doing

Romans 13:14 But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to fulfill its lusts.

Galatians 3:27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

Galatians 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me.

Galatians 2:21 I do not set aside the grace of God; for if righteousness comes through the law, then Christ died in vain.”

Galatians 5:24 And those who are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.

Galatians 5:16 I say then: Walk in the Spirit, and you shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh.

Galatians 5:17 For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one another, so that you do not do the things that you wish.

This is his summary of these sections on the Application of Righteous

He is encouraging and admonishing the Romans to act righteously now towards everyone

And if we are Christians and have an ear to hear then we will see that the admonition is for us too.

Romans 14

Paul explains to the new and old in the faith that the more important aspect of Christianity is Godliness before food or offense.  But, as he explains, this does not do away with the Sabbath or unclean meats as so many believe.

Romans 14:1 Receive one who is weak in the faith, but not to disputes over doubtful things.

New in the faith. We are not to remain this way by any means. We take this time of the year to vet ourselves, see the problems, change and grow

Not arguing about opinions.

Romans 14:2 For one believes he may eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables.

…eat all things [clean] [both meat and vegetables]

Wrong thinking that they should or have to eat only vegetables is defined by the Bible by as weak

Reasons: meat sacrificed to idols; today: health and/or philosophy

Of course there is Deuteronomy 14 in addition to Leviticus 11 (2 chapters making it clear what meats to eat)

Christ ate meat and promoted it (fishes and loaves) Jesus, when He appeared to his disciples after His resurrection, ate fish (Luke 24:41-43).

The peace offering could be eaten after certain parts were given to Aaron, his sons, and the priests. Leviticus 7:30-34

God gave the Israelites quail in the wilderness Numbers 11:4, 13, 31-33)

Deuteronomy 12:20  “When the LORD your God enlarges your border as He has promised you, and you say, ‘Let me eat meat,’ because you long to eat meat, you may eat as much meat as your heart desires.

God’s health laws are healthy.  When he said that we can eat these things, it is because we can do it in moderation and be healthy

Nonetheless Paul says they are weak so we as the stronger more mature Christian need to treat them a certain way until they grow in the faith and come to understand more clearly God’s Word.

Romans 14:3 Let not him who eats despise him who does not eat, and let not him who does not eat judge him who eats; for God has received him.

Don’t judge them for their lack of understanding.

Despise = contemptible, least esteemed, set at nought or nothing; don’t demean them or bring them down.

Not judging is a two way street. Neither should judge the other. This can be hard to do when these two groups are to co-exist

Romans 14:4 Who are you to judge another’s servant? To his own master he stands or falls. Indeed, he will be made to stand, for God is able to make him stand.

Domestic/household servant –

Who will go into another’s house and tell the maid to only use this much starch in the shirts or tell the gardener to trim the hedge this way or to show up for work on this day but not that one?

We don’t go into another’s house and [say with contempt] that’s not the way the way that you are supposed to be doing it!

Is it then up to us to be contemptible towards those that are the servants of God? Do we not think God can bring them around to the right way?

Of course God can help the weak, eventually, to be able to stand on their own…and He will

Before we read the next two verses what day is it OK to fast on? Ludicrous!

Romans 14:5 One person esteems [krino: judges] one day above another; another esteems [krino: judges] every day alike. Let each be fully convinced in his own mind.

Many believe this does away with the Sabbath, but nothing could be further from the truth.

The context is eating; why were they judging one day to be better to eat on?

This says nothing about days that are to be considered HOLY

We don’t know all the reasons why

Romans 14:6 He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks; and he who does not eat, to the Lord he does not eat, and gives God thanks.

Here is what Paul is referring to here: the days that they/we fast on.

Observes = to exercise the mind, that is, entertain or have a sentiment or opinion; by implication to be (mentally) disposed (more or less earnestly in a certain direction); intensively to interest oneself

Luke 18:12 I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I possess.’

Gill: Now the two days in the week on which they fasted were Monday and Thursday, the second and fifth days; on which days the law of Moses, and the book of Esther were read, by the order of Ezra; and fasts for the congregation were appointed on those days …. the reason for this is, by some, said to be, because Moses went up to Mount Sinai on a Thursday, and came down on a Monday. But though these men fasted so often, they took care not to hurt themselves; for they allowed themselves to eat in the night till break of day.

So kind of a half of a fast

The day that we fast and eat on doesn’t matter.

So now to address some more of what some take this to mean about the Sabbath.

IF Paul would have done away with the Sabbath what do you think the Jewish community would have done? Paul throughout the book of Romans enjoins the law without doubt. When you fast during the week it is not a matter of law.

This whole chapter is about judging and eating and even the context of this verse is about eating and fasting.

Romans 14:7 For none of us lives to himself, and no one dies to himself.

… none of us lives to himself Christians do not follow their own will or opinions as the word “observes” means in the previous verse

We find the answer of whom we live to, if not ourselves, in the next verse

Romans 14:8 For if we live, we live to the Lord; and if we die, we die to the Lord. Therefore, whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s.

We belong to Jesus Christ because He died for us, thereby paying the penalty of death for our sins. Because of this and the fact that we are His servants (:4) He is the One that judges, not us

Romans 14:9 For to this end Christ died and rose and lived again, that He might be Lord of both the dead and the living.

He is ruler, authority, and King of Kings and Lord of Lords

Romans 14:10 But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you show contempt for your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

But why do you judge your brother [incorrectly or leading to condemnation]If this is a reference back to :3 then the first question is towards the weaker/Gentile first and then the next question to the Christian Jew.

But both can be applied to us today depending on the situation that we are in, whether we are strong or weak?

Bottom line is that we need to keep our attitude in-check in matters like these and that ultimately Jesus Christ is our Judge, all of us Christian Jew or Christian Gentile – we are all just Christians.

CAVEAT: We are to judge, in the right way just not condemn. Even in this circumstance, we are to make judgments (ie weaker, whether to eat in front of them or not)

Reference: Thou Shalt Judge

stand before substantiate; present, prove, provide, show, yield (as :12 retierates)

… the judgment seat of Christ. Judged on our growth in faith and works


Romans 14:12 So then each of us shall give account of himself to God.

God will be the ultimate judge, we need to be careful about the judgments we make that they would be aligned with God’s.

Romans 14:13 Therefore let us not judge one another anymore, but rather resolve [krino:judge] this, not to put a stumbling block or a cause to fall in our brother’s way.

Don’t judge this specific situation, BUT JUDGE this

Are putting a:

stumbling block literally a block that you put in the way for the specific purpose of causing your brother to fall

… cause to fall into a snare or a trap

Even if it is lawful what we are doing

Romans 14:14 I know and am convinced by the Lord Jesus that there is nothing unclean [consistent translation: common; better/clearer translation:defiled] of itself; but to him who considers anything to be unclean [common; defiled], to him it is unclean [common; defiled].

Bias in the translation

koinos profane: – common, defiled, unclean, unholy.

Acts 10:14 uses both words unclean vs common

Acts 10:14 But Peter said, “Not so, Lord! For I have never eaten anything common or unclean.”

Acts 10:15 And a voice spoke to him again the second time, “What God has cleansed you must not call common.”

Acts 10:28 Then he said to them, “You know how unlawful it is for a Jewish man to keep company with or go to one of another nation. But God has shown me that I should not call any man common or unclean.

certain meats uncommon is the only internal evidence what some of this may be about

Leviticus 22:8 Whatever dies naturally or is torn by beasts he shall not eat, to defile himself with it: I am the LORD.

Leviticus 17:13 “Whatever man of the children of Israel, or of the strangers who dwell among you, who hunts and catches any animal or bird that may be eaten, he shall pour out its blood and cover it with dust;

Leviticus 17:14 for it is the life of all flesh. Its blood sustains its life. Therefore I said to the children of Israel, ‘You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the life of all flesh is its blood. Whoever eats it shall be cut off.’

If someone thinks it is wrong then don’t judge him in it

Romans 14:15 Yet if your brother is grieved because of your food [not just meat], you are no longer walking in love. Do not destroy with your food the one for whom Christ died.

1 Corinthians 8:7 However, there is not in everyone that knowledge; for some, with consciousness of the idol, until now eat it as a thing offered to an idol; and their conscience, being weak, is defiled.

1 Corinthians 8:8 But food does not commend us to God; for neither if we eat are we the better, nor if we do not eat are we the worse.

1 Corinthians 8:9 But beware lest somehow this liberty of yours become a stumbling block to those who are weak.

1 Corinthians 8:10 For if anyone sees you who have knowledge eating in an idol’s temple, will not the conscience of him who is weak be emboldened to eat those things offered to idols?

1 Corinthians 8:11 And because of your knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?

1 Corinthians 8:12 But when you thus sin against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ.

1 Corinthians 8:13 Therefore, if food makes my brother stumble, I will never again eat meat, lest I make my brother stumble.

If we truly are stronger, then this is what we should/would do.

We can do it ourselves, just don’t make it a problem for them

Romans 14:16 Therefore do not let your good be spoken of as evil;

Romans 14:17 for the kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.

In the end what is most important? It is surely not meat and drink

Romans 14:18 For he who serves Christ in these things is acceptable to God and approved by men.

Romans 14:19 Therefore let us pursue the things which make for peace and the things by which one may edify another.

Summarizes what Paul is getting at and alluding to

Contentions about what day to fast on? Whether we should eat what the Bible says we can eat?

Rather we should not offend and go the other direction and make peace.

Matthew 5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God.

Isaiah 9:6 For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

Isaiah 9:7 Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.


It is evil and breaks the peace to cause others to stumble when it is in your power to not do so. So Paul says:

Romans 14:20 Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food. All things indeed are pure, but it is evil for the man who eats with offense.

Romans 14:21 It is good neither to eat meat nor drink wine nor do anything by which your brother stumbles or is offended or is made weak.

As we see once again, the question is not whether we should eat unclean meat, but whether we should eat clean meat at all if it offends a weaker member.

It is interesting that when WCG said it was OK to eat what God did not make for eating (is that so hard to comprehend?) that they in using this chapter completely disregarded the main point of the chapter (not to offend others in your eating) especially when they felt they were the stronger, more knowledgeable spiritually!

Don’t do it in front of him – it’s okay in front of God [see next verse]

Romans 14:22 Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he who does not condemn [krino: judge] himself in what he approves [even can have the connotation of discerned].

If when we evaluate an issue and based on what we know and understand correctly in the bible

(or judge it)

Example of voodoo in New Orleans to bring it home

Romans 14:23 But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not eat from faith; for whatever is not from faith is sin.

he who doubts diakrino: discerns; through judgment comes to another conclusion that it is not okay to eat the food then:

is condemned [katakrino: condemn] because he goes against what he believes to be right; he goes against his conscience. And this is where we learn that:

… whatever is not from faith is sin

Can’t go against your conscience

Sin is 1 John 3:4 and this adds to it

Romans 15

Romans 15:1 We then who are strong ought to bear with the scruples of the weak, and not to please ourselves.

Carry on from the previous chapter (unscriptural vegetarianism or veganism; which days to fast on,) and more specifically to the principals in

Romans 14:15 Yet if your brother is grieved because of your food, you are no longer walking in love. Do not destroy with your food the one for whom Christ died.

Romans 14:16 Therefore do not let your good be spoken of as evil;

Romans 14:17 for the kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.

Romans 14:20 Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food. All things indeed are pure, but it is evil for the man who eats with offense.


Refers even more specifically back to Romans 14:21 It is good neither to eat meat nor drink wine nor do anything by which your brother stumbles or is offended or is made weak. (astheneō as-then-eh’-o)

scruples (asthenēma as-then’-ay-mah)… (the only place that this word is used) Webster: Doubt; hesitation from the difficulty of determining what is right or expedient; Thayer: error arising from weakness of mind; King James Version, infirmities of the weak;


These things that should not be so but are because of a new one’s lack of spiritual growth and maturity.

The point is not what they should do but how we should continue to act in love

Romans 15:2 Let each of us please his neighbor for [their] his good, leading to edification.

Our approach towards our neighbor [for the neighbor’s good];

a measuring stick for how we treat them: is what we do for their good?

Edification…build them up; Esteem others better than self; Philippians 2:3

Romans 14:19 Therefore let us pursue the things which make for peace and the things by which one may edify another.

Romans 15:3 For even Christ did not please Himself; but as it is written, “THE REPROACHES OF THOSE WHO REPROACHED YOU FELL ON ME.”

From the beginning as a God-being through until now [expound]

Following the example of Christ

(reproach: expressions of disapproval; connotation of shame too)

Psalm 69:4 Those who hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head; They are mighty who would destroy me, Being my enemies wrongfully; Though I have stolen nothing, I still must restore it.

Psalm 69:5 O God, You know my foolishness; And my sins are not hidden from You.

Psalm 69:6 Let not those who wait for You, O Lord GOD of hosts, be ashamed because of me; Let not those who seek You be confounded because of me, O God of Israel.

Psalm 69:7 Because for Your sake I have borne reproach; Shame has covered my face.

Psalm 69:8 I have become a stranger to my brothers, And an alien to my mother’s children;

Psalm 69:9 Because zeal for Your house has eaten me up, And the reproaches of those who reproach You have fallen on me.

Romans 15:4 For whatever things were written before [In early New Testament times people had only the Old Testament scriptures to teach from. Paul even quotes in previous verse] were written for our learning [teaching and doctrinal instruction], that we through the patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope.

2 Timothy 3:14 But you must continue in the things which you have learned and been assured of, knowing from whom you have learned them,

2 Timothy 3:15 and that from childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation [not only in our daily lives] through faith which is in Christ Jesus.

2 Timothy 3:16 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,

2 Timothy 3:17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.

This is why we are going over EVERY scripture in Romans and the other books that we have gone through. These scriptures give us hope!

hope … of the resurrection, of salvation, of eternal life, of His calling, of His Glory, of His Gospel

Romans 15:5 Now may the God of patience and comfort grant you to be like-minded toward one another, according to Christ Jesus,

Like :3-4 fulfilling :2

Whether we are the weak or the strong – so we don’t really have to wonder about that aspect of which one we are.

like-minded toward one another…walking in love (Romans 14:15); showing a selfless outgoing concern for the other.

Romans 15:6 that you may with one mind and one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

We are to be unified and on the same page in this regard

Romans 15:7 Therefore receive one another, just as Christ also received us, to the glory of God.

Follow His example; follow the instructions that we have just read in :2-6

Romans 15:8 Now I say that Jesus Christ has become a servant to the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made to the fathers, [Abraham, Isaac and Jacob]

Christ did what He did with, for, to the Jews because of the Old Testament promises [spiritual and physical ones]

Romans 15:9 and that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy, as it is written: “FOR THIS REASON I WILL CONFESS TO YOU AMONG THE GENTILES, AND SING TO YOUR NAME.” [Psalm 18:49]

and so the Gentiles would also have the same opportunities that the Jews would have [referred to in :8]

Shows this in the Old Testament; Psalms [perhaps gives us a new perspective on Psalms]

These verses show that the Old Testament talked about the opportunity that the Gentiles would have. The Jews were obviously blind to this.

Romans 15:10 And again he says: “REJOICE, O GENTILES, WITH HIS PEOPLE!”



The Gentiles, the rest of the world, have a chance.

What is it that we don’t see?

Are we the only called ones?

Are there still some to be called out of this present world?

Will not God be working with the rest of the world…shouldn’t we be a witness?

Romans 15:13-16 Paul felt compelled to say all that he did as a necessity for their salvation. I am sure some of the correction and pointed words were difficult to hear, but he said them out of love. And so he begins to wind it up by offering them some encouragement

Romans 15:13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.

Go forward in a positive manner

What was the hope that we mentioned before: hope of the resurrection, of salvation, of eternal life, of His calling, of His Glory, of His Gospel

Romans 15:14 Now I myself am confident concerning you, my brethren, that you also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.

Strengthening and reassuring that they were following Christ as they should be and doing well; Tells them to continue to help each other out with the minor course corrections along the way

Romans 15:15 Nevertheless, brethren, I have written more boldly to you on some points, as reminding you, because of the grace given to me by God,

Even though he had never been to Rome.

Did we see this throughout. He felt it was his job; for their benefit

Romans 15:16 that I might be a minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering of the Gentiles might be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.

Why he was called as an Apostle to the Gentiles [specifically; Romans 11:13] even though as we saw in this epistle he preached to and taught the Jews as well

Acts 9:15 But the Lord said to him, “Go, for he is a chosen vessel of Mine to bear My name before Gentiles, kings, and the children of Israel.

Romans 15:17 Therefore I have reason to glory in Christ Jesus in the things which pertain to God.

Romans 15:18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ has not accomplished through me, in word and deed, to make the Gentiles obedient—

Gives credit to God as we should and gives evidence of this in the next verse.

Romans 15:19 in mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God, so that from Jerusalem and round about to Illyricum I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.

Some of the evidence that God was with him.

Extent of his preaching Jerusalem to Illyricum (Another Roman province not completely agreed upon as to where it exactly is)

Romans 15:20 And so I have made it my aim to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build on another man’s foundation,

Another scripture that shows Peter wasn’t there in Rome as some claim


One of the reasons that Paul wrote to them was because they had no one else there to guide them.

He went to the Jews first

Romans 2:9 tribulation and anguish, on every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek;

Romans 2:10 but glory, honor, and peace to everyone who works what is good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.

Romans 2:11 For there is no partiality with God.

These prophesies in Isaiah were accomplished by Christ through Paul to many Gentiles

Romans 15:22 For this reason I also have been much hindered from coming to you.

because of :23

Romans 1:13 Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that I often planned to come to you (but was hindered until now), that I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the other Gentiles.

Romans 15:23 But now no longer having a place in these parts, and having a great desire these many years to come to you,

It doesn’t seem to have been because of persecution, that never drove him away

(ISV) But now, having no further opportunities in these regions, I want to come to you, as I’ve desired to do for many years.

(CEV) Now there is nothing left for me to do in this part of the world, and for years I have wanted to visit you.

Romans 15:24 whenever I journey to Spain, I shall come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while.

Colossians 1:6 which has come to you, as it has also in all the world, and is bringing forth fruit, as it is also among you since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth;

Colossians 1:23 if indeed you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and are not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which was preached to every creature under heaven, of which I, Paul, became a minister.

Why was there this motivation?

Matthew 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come.

Paul knew that this had to be done before Christ could return and he took it seriously.

There is also other external evidence, not scriptural mind you, that says Paul went to Spain. So if that was the case then it was his ardent desire to see the brethren of Rome on the way.

Romans 15:25 But now I am going to Jerusalem to minister to the saints.

So we see that he did preach to the Jews as well

Romans 15:26 For it pleased those from Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are in Jerusalem.

Romans 15:27 It pleased them indeed, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister to them in material things.

Romans 15:28 Therefore, when I have performed this and have sealed to them this fruit, I shall go by way of you to Spain.

They have a personal responsibility to help out and aid those in Jerusalem who appeared to be enduring some type of hardship – perhaps a famine as some have suggested.

So the Gentiles being partakers of the spiritual fruit [Word of God] of the Jews had the least of duties to give physically as they were able to the Jews to help them out in THEIR time of need.

I’m sure that there was also the hope that the converted Jews would start to become more accepting of the Gentiles and the fact that God was calling them and working with them as well.

Romans 15:29 But I know that when I come to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.

Acts 19:21 When these things were accomplished, Paul purposed in the Spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.”

Acts 23:11 But the following night the Lord stood by him and said, “Be of good cheer, Paul; for as you have testified for Me in Jerusalem, so you must also bear witness at Rome.”

All going well this is what Paul was going to do, but he knew that going to Jerusalem would be fraught with problems…

Romans 15:30 Now I beg you, brethren, through the Lord Jesus Christ, and through the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in prayers to God for me, [he knew the power of intercessory prayer]

Romans 15:31 that I may be delivered from those in Judea who do not believe, and that my service for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints,

Notice the kind of problems he dealt with in Jerusalem:

Acts 21:25 But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written and decided that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality.”

Acts 21:26 Then Paul took the men, and the next day, having been purified with them, entered the temple to announce the expiration of the days of purification, at which time an offering should be made for each one of them.

Acts 21:27 Now when the seven days were almost ended, the Jews from Asia, seeing him in the temple, stirred up the whole crowd and laid hands on him,

Acts 21:28 crying out, “Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, the law, and this place; and furthermore he also brought Greeks into the temple and has defiled this holy place.”

Acts 21:29 (For they had previously seen Trophimus the Ephesian with him in the city, whom they supposed that Paul had brought into the temple.)

Acts 21:30 And all the city was disturbed; and the people ran together, seized Paul, and dragged him out of the temple; and immediately the doors were shut.

Acts 21:31 Now as they were seeking to kill him, news came to the commander of the garrison that all Jerusalem was in an uproar.

Acts 21:32 He immediately took soldiers and centurions, and ran down to them. And when they saw the commander and the soldiers, they stopped beating Paul.

From there he was able to speak to Kings (Acts 9:15)

Romans 15:32 that I may come to you with joy by the will of God, and may be refreshed together with you.

His most ardent desire to be with the brethren and share the Gospel with them.

And he and I will end it this way

Romans 15:33 Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.